GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF NORTH CAROLINA
SESSION LAW 2005-145
HOUSE BILL 822
AN ACT to amend state law regarding the determination of aggravating factors in a criminal case to conform with the United states supreme court decision in blakely v. washington.
The General Assembly of North Carolina enacts:
SECTION 1. G.S. 15A‑1340.16 reads as rewritten:
"§ 15A‑1340.16. Aggravated and mitigated sentences.
(a) Generally, Burden of
Proof. – The court shall consider evidence of aggravating or mitigating factors
present in the offense that make an aggravated or mitigated sentence appropriate,
but the decision to depart from the presumptive range is in the discretion of
the court. The State bears the burden of proving
by a preponderance of the
evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that an aggravating factor
exists, and the offender bears the burden of proving by a preponderance of the
evidence that a mitigating factor exists.
(a1) Jury to Determine Aggravating Factors; Jury Procedure if Trial Bifurcated. –The defendant may admit to the existence of an aggravating factor, and the factor so admitted shall be treated as though it were found by a jury pursuant to the procedures in this subsection. Admissions of the existence of an aggravating factor must be consistent with the provisions of G.S. 15A‑1022.1. If the defendant does not so admit, only a jury may determine if an aggravating factor is present in an offense. The jury impaneled for the trial of the felony may, in the same trial, also determine if one or more aggravating factors is present, unless the court determines that the interests of justice require that a separate sentencing proceeding be used to make that determination. If the court determines that a separate proceeding is required, the proceeding shall be conducted by the trial judge before the trial jury as soon as practicable after the guilty verdict is returned. If prior to the time that the trial jury begins its deliberations on the issue of whether one or more aggravating factors exist, any juror dies, becomes incapacitated or disqualified, or is discharged for any reason, an alternate juror shall become a part of the jury and serve in all respects as those selected on the regular trial panel. An alternate juror shall become a part of the jury in the order in which the juror was selected. If the trial jury is unable to reconvene for a hearing on the issue of whether one or more aggravating factors exist after having determined the guilt of the accused, the trial judge shall impanel a new jury to determine the issue. A jury selected to determine whether one or more aggravating factors exist shall be selected in the same manner as juries are selected for the trial of criminal cases.
(a2) Procedure if Defendant Admits Aggravating Factor Only. – If the defendant admits that an aggravating factor exists, but pleads not guilty to the underlying felony, a jury shall be impaneled to dispose of the felony charge. In that case, evidence that relates solely to the establishment of an aggravating factor shall not be admitted in the felony trial.
(a3) Procedure if Defendant Pleads Guilty to the Felony Only. – If the defendant pleads guilty to the felony, but contests the existence of one or more aggravating factors, a jury shall be impaneled to determine if the aggravating factor or factors exist.
(a4) Pleading of Aggravating Factors. – Aggravating factors set forth in subsection (d) of this section need not be included in an indictment or other charging instrument. Any aggravating factor alleged under subdivision (d)(20) of this section shall be included in an indictment or other charging instrument, as specified in G.S. 15A‑924.
(a5) Procedure to Determine Prior Record Level Points Not Involving Prior Convictions. – If the State seeks to establish the existence of a prior record level point under G.S. 15A‑1340.14(b)(7), the jury shall determine whether the point should be assessed using the procedures specified in subsections (a1) through (a3) of this section. The State need not allege in an indictment or other pleading that it intends to establish the point.
(a6) Notice of Intent to Use Aggravating Factors or Prior Record Level Points. – The State must provide a defendant with written notice of its intent to prove the existence of one or more aggravating factors under subsection (d) of this section or a prior record level point under G.S. 15A‑1340.14(b)(7) at least 30 days before trial or the entry of a guilty or no contest plea. A defendant may waive the right to receive such notice. The notice shall list all the aggravating factors the State seeks to establish.
(b) When Aggravated or
Mitigated Sentence Allowed. – If the
court jury, or with respect to
an aggravating factor under G.S. 15A‑1340.16(d)(18a), the court, finds
that aggravating factors exist or the court finds that mitigating
factors exist, it the court may depart from the presumptive range
of sentences specified in G.S. 15A‑1340.17(c)(2). If the court
finds that aggravating factors are present and the court determines they
are sufficient to outweigh any mitigating factors that are present, it may
impose a sentence that is permitted by the aggravated range described in
G.S. 15A‑1340.17(c)(4). If the court finds that mitigating factors
are present and are sufficient to outweigh any aggravating factors that are
present, it may impose a sentence that is permitted by the mitigated range
described in G.S. 15A‑1340.17(c)(3).
(c) Written Findings; When Required. – The court shall make findings of the aggravating and mitigating factors present in the offense only if, in its discretion, it departs from the presumptive range of sentences specified in G.S. 15A‑1340.17(c)(2). If the jury finds factors in aggravation, the court shall ensure that those findings are entered in the court's determination of sentencing factors form or any comparable document used to record the findings of sentencing factors. Findings shall be in writing. The requirement to make findings in order to depart from the presumptive range applies regardless of whether the sentence of imprisonment is activated or suspended.
(d) Aggravating Factors. – The following are aggravating factors:
(1) The defendant induced others to participate in the commission of the offense or occupied a position of leadership or dominance of other participants.
(2) The defendant joined with more than one other person in committing the offense and was not charged with committing a conspiracy.
(2a) The offense was committed for the benefit of, or at the direction of, any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, and the defendant was not charged with committing a conspiracy. A "criminal street gang" means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, having as one of its primary activities the commission of felony or violent misdemeanor offenses, or delinquent acts that would be felonies or violent misdemeanors if committed by an adult, and having a common name or common identifying sign, colors, or symbols.
(3) The offense was committed for the purpose of avoiding or preventing a lawful arrest or effecting an escape from custody.
(4) The defendant was hired or paid to commit the offense.
(5) The offense was committed to disrupt or hinder the lawful exercise of any governmental function or the enforcement of laws.
(6) The offense was committed against or proximately caused serious injury to a present or former law enforcement officer, employee of the Department of Correction, jailer, fireman, emergency medical technician, ambulance attendant, justice or judge, clerk or assistant or deputy clerk of court, magistrate, prosecutor, juror, or witness against the defendant, while engaged in the performance of that person's official duties or because of the exercise of that person's official duties.
(7) The offense was especially heinous, atrocious, or cruel.
(8) The defendant knowingly created a great risk of death to more than one person by means of a weapon or device which would normally be hazardous to the lives of more than one person.
(9) The defendant held public office at the time of the offense and the offense related to the conduct of the office.
(10) The defendant was armed with or used a deadly weapon at the time of the crime.
(11) The victim was very young, or very old, or mentally or physically infirm, or handicapped.
(12) The defendant committed the offense while on pretrial release on another charge.
(13) The defendant involved a person under the age of 16 in the commission of the crime.
(14) The offense involved an attempted or actual taking of property of great monetary value or damage causing great monetary loss, or the offense involved an unusually large quantity of contraband.
(15) The defendant took advantage of a position of trust or confidence, including a domestic relationship, to commit the offense.
(16) The offense involved the sale or delivery of a controlled substance to a minor.
(16a) The offense is the manufacture of methamphetamine and was committed where a person under the age of 18 lives, was present, or was otherwise endangered by exposure to the drug, its ingredients, its by‑products, or its waste.
(17) The offense for which the defendant stands convicted was committed against a victim because of the victim's race, color, religion, nationality, or country of origin.
(18) The defendant does not support the defendant's family.
(18a) The defendant has previously been adjudicated delinquent for an offense that would be a Class A, B1, B2, C, D, or E felony if committed by an adult.
(19) The serious injury inflicted upon the victim is permanent and debilitating.
(20) Any other aggravating factor reasonably related to the purposes of sentencing.
Evidence necessary to prove an element of the offense shall not be used to prove any factor in aggravation, and the same item of evidence shall not be used to prove more than one factor in aggravation. Evidence necessary to establish that an enhanced sentence is required under G.S. 15A‑1340.16A may not be used to prove any factor in aggravation.
The judge shall not consider as an aggravating factor the fact that the defendant exercised the right to a jury trial.
Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a1) of this section, the determination that an aggravating factor under G.S. 15A‑1340.16(d)(18a) is present in a case shall be made by the court, and not by the jury. That determination shall be made in the sentencing hearing.
(e) Mitigating Factors. – The following are mitigating factors:
(1) The defendant committed the offense under duress, coercion, threat, or compulsion that was insufficient to constitute a defense but significantly reduced the defendant's culpability.
(2) The defendant was a passive participant or played a minor role in the commission of the offense.
(3) The defendant was suffering from a mental or physical condition that was insufficient to constitute a defense but significantly reduced the defendant's culpability for the offense.
(4) The defendant's age, immaturity, or limited mental capacity at the time of commission of the offense significantly reduced the defendant's culpability for the offense.
(5) The defendant has made substantial or full restitution to the victim.
(6) The victim was more than 16 years of age and was a voluntary participant in the defendant's conduct or consented to it.
(7) The defendant aided in the apprehension of another felon or testified truthfully on behalf of the prosecution in another prosecution of a felony.
(8) The defendant acted under strong provocation, or the relationship between the defendant and the victim was otherwise extenuating.
(9) The defendant could not reasonably foresee that the defendant's conduct would cause or threaten serious bodily harm or fear, or the defendant exercised caution to avoid such consequences.
(10) The defendant reasonably believed that the defendant's conduct was legal.
(11) Prior to arrest or at an early stage of the criminal process, the defendant voluntarily acknowledged wrongdoing in connection with the offense to a law enforcement officer.
(12) The defendant has been a person of good character or has had a good reputation in the community in which the defendant lives.
(13) The defendant is a minor and has reliable supervision available.
(14) The defendant has been honorably discharged from the United States armed services.
(15) The defendant has accepted responsibility for the defendant's criminal conduct.
(16) The defendant has entered and is currently involved in or has successfully completed a drug treatment program or an alcohol treatment program subsequent to arrest and prior to trial.
(17) The defendant supports the defendant's family.
(18) The defendant has a support system in the community.
(19) The defendant has a positive employment history or is gainfully employed.
(20) The defendant has a good treatment prognosis, and a workable treatment plan is available.
(21) Any other mitigating factor reasonably related to the purposes of sentences."
SECTION 2. G.S. 15A‑1340.14 reads as rewritten:
(a) Generally. – The prior record level of a felony offender is determined by calculating the sum of the points assigned to each of the offender's prior convictions that the court, or with respect to subdivision (b)(7) of this section, the jury, finds to have been proved in accordance with this section.
(b) Points. – Points are assigned as follows:
(1) For each prior felony Class A conviction, 10 points.
(1a) For each prior felony Class B1 conviction, 9 points.
(2) For each prior felony Class B2, C, or D conviction, 6 points.
(3) For each prior felony Class E, F, or G conviction, 4 points.
(4) For each prior felony Class H or I conviction, 2 points.
(5) For each prior misdemeanor conviction as defined in this subsection, 1 point. For purposes of this subsection, misdemeanor is defined as any Class A1 and Class 1 nontraffic misdemeanor offense, impaired driving (G.S. 20‑138.1), impaired driving in a commercial vehicle (G.S. 20‑138.2), and misdemeanor death by vehicle (G.S. 20‑141.4(a2)), but not any other misdemeanor traffic offense under Chapter 20 of the General Statutes.
(6) If all the elements of the present offense are included in any prior offense for which the offender was convicted, whether or not the prior offense or offenses were used in determining prior record level, 1 point.
(7) If the offense was committed while the offender was on supervised or unsupervised probation, parole, or post‑release supervision, or while the offender was serving a sentence of imprisonment, or while the offender was on escape from a correctional institution while serving a sentence of imprisonment, 1 point.
For purposes of determining prior record points under this subsection, a conviction for a first degree rape or a first degree sexual offense committed prior to the effective date of this subsection shall be treated as a felony Class B1 conviction, and a conviction for any other felony Class B offense committed prior to the effective date of this subsection shall be treated as a felony Class B2 conviction. G.S. 15A‑1340.16(a5) specifies the procedure to be used to determine if a point exists under subdivision (7) of this subsection. The State must provide a defendant with written notice of its intent to prove the existence of the prior record point under subdivision (7) of this subsection as required by G.S. 15A‑1340.16(a6).
(c) Prior Record Levels for Felony Sentencing. – The prior record levels for felony sentencing are:
(1) Level I – 0 points.
(2) Level II – At least 1, but not more than 4 points.
(3) Level III – At least 5, but not more than 8 points.
(4) Level IV – At least 9, but not more than 14 points.
(5) Level V – At least 15, but not more than 18 points.
(6) Level VI – At least 19 points.
In determining the prior record level, the classification of a prior offense is the classification assigned to that offense at the time the offense for which the offender is being sentenced is committed.
(d) Multiple Prior Convictions Obtained in One Court Week. – For purposes of determining the prior record level, if an offender is convicted of more than one offense in a single superior court during one calendar week, only the conviction for the offense with the highest point total is used. If an offender is convicted of more than one offense in a single session of district court, only one of the convictions is used.
(e) Classification of Prior Convictions From Other Jurisdictions. – Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a conviction occurring in a jurisdiction other than North Carolina is classified as a Class I felony if the jurisdiction in which the offense occurred classifies the offense as a felony, or is classified as a Class 3 misdemeanor if the jurisdiction in which the offense occurred classifies the offense as a misdemeanor. If the offender proves by the preponderance of the evidence that an offense classified as a felony in the other jurisdiction is substantially similar to an offense that is a misdemeanor in North Carolina, the conviction is treated as that class of misdemeanor for assigning prior record level points. If the State proves by the preponderance of the evidence that an offense classified as either a misdemeanor or a felony in the other jurisdiction is substantially similar to an offense in North Carolina that is classified as a Class I felony or higher, the conviction is treated as that class of felony for assigning prior record level points. If the State proves by the preponderance of the evidence that an offense classified as a misdemeanor in the other jurisdiction is substantially similar to an offense classified as a Class A1 or Class 1 misdemeanor in North Carolina, the conviction is treated as a Class A1 or Class 1 misdemeanor for assigning prior record level points.
(f) Proof of Prior Convictions. – A prior conviction shall be proved by any of the following methods:
(1) Stipulation of the parties.
(2) An original or copy of the court record of the prior conviction.
(3) A copy of records maintained by the Division of Criminal Information, the Division of Motor Vehicles, or of the Administrative Office of the Courts.
(4) Any other method found by the court to be reliable.
The State bears the burden of proving, by a preponderance of the evidence, that a prior conviction exists and that the offender before the court is the same person as the offender named in the prior conviction. The original or a copy of the court records or a copy of the records maintained by the Division of Criminal Information, the Division of Motor Vehicles, or of the Administrative Office of the Courts, bearing the same name as that by which the offender is charged, is prima facie evidence that the offender named is the same person as the offender before the court, and that the facts set out in the record are true. For purposes of this subsection, "a copy" includes a paper writing containing a reproduction of a record maintained electronically on a computer or other data processing equipment, and a document produced by a facsimile machine. The prosecutor shall make all feasible efforts to obtain and present to the court the offender's full record. Evidence presented by either party at trial may be utilized to prove prior convictions. Suppression of prior convictions is pursuant to G.S. 15A‑980. If a motion is made pursuant to that section during the sentencing stage of the criminal action, the court may grant a continuance of the sentencing hearing. If asked by the defendant in compliance with G.S. 15A‑903, the prosecutor shall furnish the defendant's prior criminal record to the defendant within a reasonable time sufficient to allow the defendant to determine if the record available to the prosecutor is accurate. Upon request of a sentencing services program established pursuant to Article 61 of Chapter 7A of the General Statutes, the district attorney shall provide any information the district attorney has about the criminal record of a person for whom the program has been requested to provide a sentencing plan pursuant to G.S. 7A‑773.1."
SECTION 3. G.S. 15A‑924(a) is amended by adding a new subdivision to read:
"(a) A criminal pleading must contain:
(1) The name or other identification of the defendant but the name of the defendant need not be repeated in each count unless required for clarity.
(2) A separate count addressed to each offense charged, but allegations in one count may be incorporated by reference in another count.
(3) A statement or cross reference in each count indicating that the offense charged therein was committed in a designated county.
(4) A statement or cross reference in each count indicating that the offense charged was committed on, or on or about, a designated date, or during a designated period of time. Error as to a date or its omission is not ground for dismissal of the charges or for reversal of a conviction if time was not of the essence with respect to the charge and the error or omission did not mislead the defendant to his prejudice.
(5) A plain and concise factual statement in each count which, without allegations of an evidentiary nature, asserts facts supporting every element of a criminal offense and the defendant's commission thereof with sufficient precision clearly to apprise the defendant or defendants of the conduct which is the subject of the accusation. When the pleading is a criminal summons, warrant for arrest, or magistrate's order, or statement of charges based thereon, both the statement of the crime and any information showing probable cause which was considered by the judicial official and which has been furnished to the defendant must be used in determining whether the pleading is sufficient to meet the foregoing requirement.
(6) For each count a citation of any applicable statute, rule, regulation, ordinance, or other provision of law alleged therein to have been violated. Error in the citation or its omission is not ground for dismissal of the charges or for reversal of a conviction.
(7) A statement that the State intends to use one or more aggravating factors under G.S. 15A‑1340.16(d)(20), with a plain and concise factual statement indicating the factor or factors it intends to use under the authority of that subdivision."
SECTION 4. Article 58 of Chapter 15A of the General Statutes is amended by adding a new section to read:
"§ 15A‑1022.1. Procedure in accepting admissions of the existence of aggravating factors in felonies.
(a) Before accepting a plea of guilty or no contest to a felony, the court shall determine whether the State intends to seek a sentence in the aggravated range. If the State does intend to seek an aggravated sentence, the court shall determine which factors the State seeks to establish. The court shall determine whether the State seeks a finding that a prior record level point should be found under G.S. 15A‑1340.14(b)(7). The court shall also determine whether the State has provided the notice to the defendant required by G.S. 15A‑1340.16(a6) or whether the defendant has waived his or her right to such notice.
(b) In all cases in which a defendant admits to the existence of an aggravating factor or to a finding that a prior record level point should be found under G.S. 15A‑1340.14(b)(7), the court shall comply with the provisions of G.S. 15A‑1022(a). In addition, the court shall address the defendant personally and advise the defendant that:
(1) He or she is entitled to have a jury determine the existence of any aggravating factors or points under G.S. 15A‑1340.14(b)(7); and
(2) He or she has the right to prove the existence of any mitigating factors at a sentencing hearing before the sentencing judge.
(c) Before accepting an admission to the existence of an aggravating factor or a prior record level point under G.S. 15A‑1340.14(b)(7), the court shall determine that there is a factual basis for the admission, and that the admission is the result of an informed choice by the defendant. The court may base its determination on the factors specified in G.S. 15A‑1022(c), as well as any other appropriate information.
(d) A defendant may admit to the existence of an aggravating factor or to the existence of a prior record level point under G.S. 15A‑1340.14(b)(7) before or after the trial of the underlying felony.
(e) The procedures specified in this Article for the handling of pleas of guilty are applicable to the handling of admissions to aggravating factors and prior record points under G.S. 15A‑1340.14(b)(7), unless the context clearly indicates that they are inappropriate."
SECTION 5. This act is effective when it becomes law. Prosecutions for offenses committed before the effective date of this act are not abated or affected by this act, and the statutes that would be applicable but for this act remain applicable to those prosecutions.
In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this the 21st day of June, 2005.
s/ Marc Basnight
President Pro Tempore of the Senate
s/ James B. Black
Speaker of the House of Representatives
s/ Michael F. Easley
Approved 2:50 p.m. this 30th day of June, 2005