Article 5.

North Carolina Controlled Substances Act.

§ 90-86.  Title of Article.

This Article shall be known and may be cited as the "North  Carolina Controlled Substances Act." (1971, c. 919, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-87.  Definitions.

As used in this Article:

(1)        "Administer" means the direct application of a controlled substance, whether by injection, inhalation, ingestion, or any other means to the body of a patient or research subject by:

a.         A practitioner (or, in his presence, by his authorized agent), or

b.         The patient or research subject at the direction and in the presence of the practitioner.

(2)        "Agent" means an authorized person who acts on behalf of or at the direction of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser but does not include a common or contract carrier, public warehouseman, or employee thereof.

(3)        "Bureau" means the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, United States Department of Justice or its successor agency.

(3a)      "Commission" means the Commission for Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities, and Substance Abuse Services established under Part 4 of Article 3 of Chapter 143B of the General Statutes.

(4)        "Control" means to add, remove, or change the placement of a drug, substance, or immediate precursor included in Schedules I through VI of this Article.

(5)        "Controlled substance" means a drug, substance, or immediate precursor included in Schedules I through VI of this Article.

(5a)      "Controlled substance analogue" means a substance (i) the chemical structure of which is substantially similar to the chemical structure of a controlled substance in Schedule I or II; (ii) which has a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system of a controlled substance in Schedule I or II; or (iii) with respect to a particular person, which such person represents or intends to have a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system of a controlled substance in Schedule I or II; and does not include (i) a controlled substance; (ii) any substance for which there is an approved new drug application; (iii) with respect to a particular person any substance, if an exemption is in effect for investigational use, for that person, under § 355 of Title 21 of the United States Code to the extent conduct with respect to such substance is pursuant to such exemption; or (iv) any substance to the extent not intended for human consumption before such an exemption takes effect with respect to that substance. The designation of gamma butyrolactone or any other chemical as a listed chemical pursuant to subdivision 802(34) or 802(35) of Title 21 of the United States Code does not preclude a finding pursuant to this subdivision that the chemical is a controlled substance analogue.

(6)        "Counterfeit controlled substance" means:

a.         A controlled substance which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, number, or device, or any likeness thereof, of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, distributed, or dispensed such substance and which thereby falsely purports, or is represented to be the product of, or to have been distributed by, such other manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser; or

b.         Any substance which is by any means intentionally represented as a controlled substance. It is evidence that the substance has been intentionally misrepresented as a controlled substance if the following factors are established:

1.         The substance was packaged or delivered in a manner normally used for the illegal delivery of controlled substances.

2.         Money or other valuable property has been exchanged or requested for the substance, and the amount of that consideration was substantially in excess of the reasonable value of the substance.

3.         The physical appearance of the tablets, capsules or other finished product containing the substance is substantially identical to a specified controlled substance.

(7)        "Deliver" or "delivery" means the actual constructive, or attempted transfer from one person to another of a controlled substance, whether or not there is an agency relationship.

(8)        "Dispense" means to deliver a controlled substance to an ultimate user or research subject by or pursuant to the lawful order of a practitioner, including the prescribing, administering, packaging, labeling, or compounding necessary to prepare the substance for that delivery.

(9)        "Dispenser" means a practitioner who dispenses.

(10)      "Distribute" means to deliver other than by administering or dispensing a controlled substance.

(11)      "Distributor" means a person who distributes.

(12)      "Drug" means a. substances recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; b. substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; c. substances (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals; and d. substances intended for use as a component of any article specified in a, b, or c of this subdivision; but does not include devices or their components, parts, or accessories.

(13)      "Drug dependent person" means a person who is using a controlled substance and who is in a state of psychic or physical dependence, or both, arising from use of that controlled substance on a continuous basis. Drug dependence is characterized by behavioral and other responses which include a strong compulsion to take the substance on a continuous basis in order to experience its psychic effects, or to avoid the discomfort of its absence.

(14)      "Immediate precursor" means a substance which the Commission has found to be and by regulation designates as being the principal compound commonly used or produced primarily for use, and which is an immediate chemical intermediary used or likely to be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, the control of which is necessary to prevent, curtail, or limit such manufacture.

(14a)    The term "isomer" means, except as used in G.S. 90-87(17)(d), G.S. 90-89(c), G.S. 90-90(1)d., and G.S. 90-95(h)(3), the optical isomer. As used in G.S. 90-89(c) the term "isomer" means the optical, position, or geometric isomer. As used in G.S. 90-87(17)(d), G.S. 90-90(1)d., and G.S. 90-95(h)(3) the term "isomer" means the optical isomer or diastereoisomer.

(15)      "Manufacture" means the production, preparation, propagation, compounding, conversion, or processing of a controlled substance by any means, whether directly or indirectly, artificially or naturally, or by extraction from substances of a natural origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis; and "manufacture" further includes any packaging or repackaging of the substance or labeling or relabeling of its container except that this term does not include the preparation or compounding of a controlled substance by an individual for his own use or the preparation, compounding, packaging, or labeling of a controlled substance:

a.         By a practitioner as an incident to his administering or dispensing of a controlled substance in the course of his professional practice, or

b.         By a practitioner, or by his authorized agent under his supervision, for the purpose of, or as an incident to research, teaching, or chemical analysis and not for sale.

(16)      "Marijuana" means all parts of the plant of the genus Cannabis, whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin, but shall not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil, or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination.

(17)      "Narcotic drug" means any of the following, whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

a.         Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate.

b.         Any salt, compound, isomer, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in clause a, but not including the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

c.         Opium poppy and poppy straw.

d.         Cocaine and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof, or coca leaves and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves, or any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocanized coca leaves or extraction of coca leaves, which extractions do not contain cocaine or ecgonine.

(18)      "Opiate" means any substance having an addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability similar to morphine or being capable of conversion into a drug having addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability. It does not include, unless specifically designated as controlled under G.S. 90-88, the dextrorotatory isomer of 3-methoxy-n-methyl-morphinan and its salts (dextromethorphan). It does include its racemic and levorotatory forms.

(19)      "Opium poppy" means the plant of the species Papaver somniferum L., except its seeds.

(20)      "Person" means individual, corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership or association, or any other legal entity.

(21)      "Poppy straw" means all parts, except the seeds, of the opium poppy, after mowing.

(22)      "Practitioner" means:

a.         A physician, dentist, optometrist, veterinarian, scientific investigator, or other person licensed, registered or otherwise permitted to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to or to administer a controlled substance so long as such activity is within the normal course of professional practice or research in this State.

b.         A pharmacy, hospital or other institution licensed, registered, or otherwise permitted to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to or to administer a controlled substance so long as such activity is within the normal course of professional practice or research in this State.

(23)      "Prescription" means:

a.         A written order or other order which is promptly reduced to writing for a controlled substance as defined in this Article, or for a preparation, combination, or mixture thereof, issued by a practitioner who is licensed in this State to administer or prescribe drugs in the course of his professional practice; or issued by a practitioner serving on active duty with the Armed Forces of the United States or the United States Veterans Administration who is licensed in this or another state or Puerto Rico, provided the order is written for the benefit of eligible beneficiaries of armed services medical care; a prescription does not include an order entered in a chart or other medical record of a patient by a practitioner for the administration of a drug; or

b.         A drug or preparation, or combination, or mixture thereof furnished pursuant to a prescription order.

(24)      "Production" includes the manufacture, planting, cultivation, growing, or harvesting of a controlled substance.

(25)      "Registrant" means a person registered by the Commission to manufacture, distribute, or dispense any controlled substance as required by this Article.

(26)      "State" means the State of North Carolina.

(27)      "Ultimate user" means a person who lawfully possesses a controlled substance for his own use, or for the use of a member of his household, or for administration to an animal owned by him or by a member of his household.  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 540, ss. 2-4; c. 1358, ss. 1, 15; 1977, c. 482, s. 6; 1981, c. 51, ss. 8, 9; c. 75, s. 1; c. 732; 1985, c. 491; 1987, c. 105, ss. 1, 2; 1991 (Reg. Sess., 1992), c. 1030, s. 21; 1997-456, s. 27; 2003-249, s. 2; 2011-183, s. 60.)

 

§ 90-88.  Authority to control.

(a)        The Commission may add, delete, or reschedule substances within Schedules I through VI of this Article on the petition of any interested party, or its own motion. In every case the Commission shall give notice of and hold a public hearing pursuant to Chapter 150B of the General Statutes prior to adding, deleting or rescheduling a controlled substance within Schedules I through VI of this Article, except as provided in subsection (d) of this section. A petition by the Commission, the North Carolina Department of Justice, or the North Carolina Board of Pharmacy to add, delete, or reschedule a controlled substance within Schedules I through VI of this Article shall be placed on the agenda, for consideration, at the next regularly scheduled meeting of the Commission, as a matter of right.

(a1)      In making a determination regarding a substance, the Commission shall consider the following:

(1)        The actual or relative potential for abuse;

(2)        The scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect, if known;

(3)        The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the substance;

(4)        The history and current pattern of abuse;

(5)        The scope, duration, and significance of abuse;

(6)        The risk to the public health;

(7)        The potential of the substance to produce psychic or physiological dependence liability; and

(8)        Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a substance already controlled under this Article.

(b)        After considering the required factors, the Commission shall make findings with respect thereto and shall issue an order adding, deleting or rescheduling the substance within Schedules I through VI of this Article.

(c)        If the Commission designates a substance as an immediate precursor, substances which are precursors of the controlled precursor shall not be subject to control solely because they are precursors of the controlled precursor.

(d)        If any substance is designated, rescheduled or deleted as a controlled substance under federal law, the Commission shall similarly control or cease control of, the substance under this Article unless the Commission objects to such inclusion. The Commission, at its next regularly scheduled meeting that takes place 30 days after publication in the Federal Register of a final order scheduling a substance, shall determine either to adopt a rule to similarly control the substance under this Article or to object to such action. No rule-making notice or hearing as specified by Chapter 150B of the General Statutes is required if the Commission makes a decision to similarly control a substance. However, if the Commission makes a decision to object to adoption of the federal action, it shall initiate rule-making procedures pursuant to Chapter 150B of the General Statutes within 180 days of its decision to object.

(e)        The Commission shall exclude any nonnarcotic substance from the provisions of this Article if such substance may, under the federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, lawfully be sold over-the-counter without prescription.

(f)         Authority to control under this Article does not include distilled spirits, wine, malt beverages, or tobacco.

(g)        The Commission shall similarly exempt from the provisions of this Article any chemical agents and diagnostic reagents not intended for administration to humans or other animals, containing controlled substances which either (i) contain additional adulterant or denaturing agents so that the resulting mixture has no significant abuse potential, or (ii) are packaged in such a form or concentration that the particular form as packaged has no significant abuse potential, where such substance was exempted by the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs.

(h)        Repealed by Session Laws 1987, c. 413, s. 4.

(i)         The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services shall maintain a list of all preparations, compounds, or mixtures which are excluded, exempted and excepted from control under any schedule of this Article by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration and/or the Commission. This list and any changes to this list shall be mailed to the North Carolina Board of Pharmacy, the State Bureau of Investigation and each district attorney of this State. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; cc. 524, 541; c. 1358, ss. 2, 3, 15; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1987, c. 413, ss. 1-4; 1989, c. 770, s. 16; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a); 2000-189, s. 4; 2001-487, s. 22.)

 

§ 90-89.  Schedule I controlled substances.

This schedule includes the controlled substances listed or to be listed by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or trade name designated. In determining that a substance comes within this schedule, the Commission shall find: a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in the United States, or a lack of accepted safety for use in treatment under medical supervision. The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1)        Any of the following opiates, including the isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, unless specifically excepted, or listed in another schedule, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

a.         Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl (N[1-(1-methyl-2-phenethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-N-phenylacetamide).

b.         Acetylmethadol.

c.         Repealed by Session Laws 1987, c. 412, s. 2.

d.         Alpha-methylthiofentanyl (N-[1-methyl-2-(2-thienyl)ethyl-4-piperidinyl]-N-

phenylpropanamide).

e.         Allylprodine.

f.          Alphacetylmethadol.

g.         Alphameprodine.

h.         Alphamethadol.

i.          Alpha-methylfentanyl (N-(1-(alpha-methyl-beta-phenyl) ethyl-4-piperidyl) propionalilide; 1(1-methyl-2-phenyl-ethyl)-4-(N-propanilido) piperidine).

j.          Benzethidine.

k.         Betacetylmethadol.

l.          Beta-hydroxfentanyl (N-[1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-N-

phenylpropanamide).

m.        Beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl (N-[1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenethyl)-3-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-N-

phenylpropanamide).

n.         Betameprodine.

o.         Betamethadol.

p.         Betaprodine.

q.         Clonitazene.

r.          Dextromoramide.

s.          Diampromide.

t.          Diethylthiambutene.

u.         Difenoxin.

v.         Dimenoxadol.

w.        Dimepheptanol.

x.         Dimethylthiambutene.

y.         Dioxaphetyl butyrate.

z.          Dipipanone.

aa.        Ethylmethylthiambutene.

bb.       Etonitazene.

cc.        Etoxeridine.

dd.       Furethidine.

ee.        Hydroxypethidine.

ff.         Ketobemidone.

gg.        Levomoramide.

hh.        Levophenacylmorphan.

ii.          1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (MPPP).

jj.         3-Methylfentanyl (N-[3-methyl-1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-Piperidyl]-

N-Phenylpropanamide).

kk.       3-Methylthiofentanyl (N-[(3-methyl-1-(2-thienyl)ethyl-4-piperidinyl]-N-

phenylpropanamide).

ll.          Morpheridine.

mm.      Noracymethadol.

nn.        Norlevorphanol.

oo.       Normethadone.

pp.       Norpipanone.

qq.       Para-fluorofentanyl (N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-[1-(2-phen-ethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-

propanamide.

rr.         Phenadoxone.

ss.        Phenampromide.

tt.         1-(2-phenethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine (PEPAP).

uu.        Phenomorphan.

vv.        Phenoperidine.

ww.      Piritramide.

xx.        Proheptazine.

yy.        Properidine.

zz.        Propiram.

aaa.      Racemoramide.

bbb.     Thiofentanyl (N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-thienyl)ethyl-4-piperidinyl]-propanamide.

ccc.      Tilidine.

ddd.     Trimeperidine.

(2)        Any of the following opium derivatives, including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, or listed in another schedule, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

a.         Acetorphine.

b.         Acetyldihydrocodeine.

c.         Benzylmorphine.

d.         Codeine methylbromide.

e.         Codeine-N-Oxide.

f.          Cyprenorphine.

g.         Desomorphine.

h.         Dihydromorphine.

i.          Etorphine (except hydrochloride salt).

j.          Heroin.

k.         Hydromorphinol.

l.          Methyldesorphine.

m.        Methyldihydromorphine.

n.         Morphine methylbromide.

o.         Morphine methylsulfonate.

p.         Morphine-N-Oxide.

q.         Myrophine.

r.          Nicocodeine.

s.          Nicomorphine.

t.          Normorphine.

u.         Pholcodine.

v.         Thebacon.

w.        Drotebanol.

(3)        Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, or listed in another schedule, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

a.         3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

b.         5-methoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

c.         3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

d.         3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (also known as N-ethyl-alpha-methyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine, N-ethyl MDA, MDE, and MDEA).

e.         N-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (also known as N-hydroxy-alpha-methyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine, and N-hydroxy MDA).

f.          3, 4, 5-trimethoxyamphetamine.

g.         Alpha-ethyltryptamine. Some trade or other names: etryptamine, Monase, alpha-ethyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine, 3-(2-aminobutyl) indole, alpha-ET, and AET.

h.         Bufotenine.

i.          Diethyltryptamine.

j.          Dimethyltryptamine.

k.         4-methyl-2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine.

l.          Ibogaine.

m.        Lysergic acid diethylamide.

n.         Mescaline.

o.         Peyote, meaning all parts of the plant presently classified botanically as Lophophora Williamsii Lemaire, whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; any extract from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of such plant, its seed or extracts.

p.         N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

q.         N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

r.          Psilocybin.

s.          Psilocin.

t.          2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine.

u.         2, 5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine. Some trade or other names: DOET.

v.         4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine.

w.        4-methoxyamphetamine.

x.         Ethylamine analog of phencyclidine. Some trade or other names: N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine, (1-phenylcyclohexyl) ethylamine, N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) ethylamine, cyclohexamine, PCE.

y.         Pyrrolidine analog of phencyclidine. Some trade or other names: 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-pyrrolidine, PCPy, PHP.

z.          Thiophene analog of phencyclidine. Some trade or other names: 1-[1-(2-thienyl)-cyclohexyl]-piperidine, 2-thienyl analog of phencyclidine, TPCP, TCP.

aa.        1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]pyrrolidine; Some other names: TCPy.

bb.       Parahexyl.

cc.        4-Bromo-2, 5-Dimethoxyphenethylamine.

dd.       Alpha-Methyltryptamine.

ee.        5-Methoxy-n-diisopropyltryptamine.

(4)        Any material compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation, unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule:

a.         Mecloqualone.

b.         Methaqualone.

c.         Gamma hydroxybutyric acid; Some other names: GHB, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, 4-hydroxybutanoic acid; sodium oxybate; sodium oxybutyrate.

(5)        Stimulants. - Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers:

a.         Aminorex. Some trade or other names: aminoxaphen; 2-amino-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline; or 4,5-dihydro-5-phenly-2-oxazolamine.

b.         Cathinone. Some trade or other names: 2-amino-1-phenyl-1-propanone, alpha-aminopropiophenone, 2-aminopropiophenone, and norephedrone.

c.         Fenethylline.

d.         Methcathinone. Some trade or other names: 2-(methylamino)- propiophenone, alpha-(methylamino)propiophenone, 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-one, alpha-N-methylamino- propiophenone, monomethylproprion, ephedrone, N-methylcathinone, methylcathinone, AL-464, AL-422, AL-463, and UR1432.

e.         (+-)cis-4-methylaminorex [(+-)cis-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolamine] (also known as 2-amino-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline).

f.          N,N-dimethylamphetamine. Some other names: N,N,alpha-tri- methylbenzeneethaneamine; N,N,alpha-trimethylphenethylamine.

g.         N-ethylamphetamine.

h.         4-methylmethcathinone (also known as mephedrone).

i.          3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (also known as MDPV).

j.          A compound, other than bupropion, that is structurally derived from 2-amino-1-phenyl-1-propanone by modification in any of the following ways: (i) by substitution in the phenyl ring to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy, haloalkyl, or halide substituents, whether or not further substituted in the phenyl ring by one or more other univalent substituents; (ii) by substitution at the 3-position with an alkyl substituent; or (iii) by substitution at the nitrogen atom with alkyl or diakyl groups or by inclusion of the nitrogen atom in a cyclic structure.

k.         N-Benzylpiperazine.

l.          2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine.  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 844; c. 1358, ss. 4, 5, 15; 1975, c. 443, s. 1; c. 790; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; c. 891, s. 1; 1979, c. 434, s. 1; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1983, c. 695, s. 1; 1985, c. 172, ss. 1-3; 1987, c. 412, ss. 1-5; 1989 (Reg. Sess., 1990), c. 1040, s. 1; 1993, c. 319, ss. 1, 2; 1995, c. 186, ss. 1-3; c. 509, s. 135.1(c); 1997-456, ss. 12, 27; 1999-165, s. 1; 2000-140, s. 92.2(a); 2011-12, s. 1; 2011-326, s. 14(a), (b).)

 

§ 90-89.1.  Treatment of controlled substance analogues.

A controlled substance analogue shall, to the extent intended for human consumption, be treated for the purposes of any State law as a controlled substance in Schedule I. (2003-249, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-90.  Schedule II controlled substances.

This schedule includes the controlled substances listed or to be listed by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or trade name designated. In determining that a substance comes within this schedule, the Commission shall find: a high potential for abuse; currently accepted medical use in the United States, or currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions; and the abuse of the substance may lead to severe psychic or physical dependence. The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1)        Any of the following substances whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis, unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule:

a.         Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium and opiate, excluding apomorphine, nalbuphine, dextrorphan, naloxone, naltrexone and nalmefene, and their respective salts, but including the following:

1.         Raw opium.

2.         Opium extracts.

3.         Opium fluid extracts.

4.         Powdered opium.

5.         Granulated opium.

6.         Tincture of opium.

7.         Codeine.

8.         Ethylmorphine.

9.         Etorphine hydrochloride.

10.       Hydrocodone.

11.       Hydromorphone.

12.       Metopon.

13.       Morphine.

14.       Oxycodone.

15.       Oxymorphone.

16.       Thebaine.

17.       Dihydroetorphine.

b.         Any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in paragraph 1 of this subdivision, except that these substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

c.         Opium poppy and poppy straw.

d.         Cocaine and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof, or coca leaves and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves, or any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocanized coca leaves or extraction of coca leaves, which extractions do not contain cocaine or ecgonine.

e.         Concentrate of poppy straw (the crude extract of poppy straw in either liquid, solid or powder form which contains the phenanthrine alkaloids of the opium poppy).

(2)        Any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation unless specifically exempted or listed in other schedules:

a.         Alfentanil.

b.         Alphaprodine.

c.         Anileridine.

d.         Bezitramide.

e.         Carfentanil.

f.          Dihydrocodeine.

g.         Diphenoxylate.

h.         Fentanyl.

i.          Isomethadone.

j.          Levo-alphacetylmethadol. Some trade or other names: levo-alpha-acetylmethadol, levomethadyl acetate, or LAAM.

k.         Levomethorphan.

l.          Levorphanol.

m.        Metazocine.

n.         Methadone.

o.         Methadone - Intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4, 4-diphenyl butane.

p.         Moramide - Intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenyl-propane-carboxylic acid.

q.         Pethidine.

r.          Pethidine - Intermediate - A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine.

s.          Pethidine - Intermediate - B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate.

t.          Pethidine - Intermediate - C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid.

u.         Phenazocine.

v.         Piminodine.

w.        Racemethorphan.

x.         Racemorphan.

y.         Remifentanil.

z.          Sufentanil.

aa.        Tapentadol.

(3)        Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a stimulant effect on the central nervous system unless specifically exempted or listed in another schedule:

a.         Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers.

b.         Phenmetrazine and its salts.

c.         Methamphetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.

d.         Methylphenidate.

e.         Phenylacetone. Some trade or other names: Phenyl-2-propanone; P2P; benzyl methyl ketone; methyl benzyl ketone.

f.          Lisdexamfetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.

(4)        Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation, unless specifically exempted by the Commission or listed in another schedule:

a.         Amobarbital

b.         Glutethimide

c.         Repealed by Session Laws 1983, c. 695, s. 2.

d.         Pentobarbital

e.         Phencyclidine

f.          Phencyclidine immediate precursors:

1.         1-Phenylcyclohexylamine

2.         1-Piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC)

g.         Secobarbital.

(5)        Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, or listed in another schedule, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

a.         Repealed by Session Laws 2001-233, s. 2(a), effective June 21, 2001.

b.         Nabilone [Another name for nabilone: (+/-)-trans-3-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-6,6a,7,8,10,10a-hexahyd ro-1-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-9H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-9-one].  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 540, s. 6; c. 1358, ss. 6, 15; 1975, c. 443, s. 2; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; c. 891, s. 2; 1979, c. 434, s. 2; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1983, c. 695, s. 2; 1985, c. 172, ss. 4, 5; 1987, c. 105, s. 3; c. 412, ss. 5A-7; 1989 (Reg. Sess., 1990), c. 1040, s. 2; 1993, c. 319, ss. 3, 4; 1995, c. 186, s. 4; 1997-385, s. 1; 1997-456, s. 27; 1999-165, s. 2; 2001-233, ss. 1, 2(a); 2011-326, s. 14(c), (d).)

 

§ 90-91.  Schedule III controlled substances.

This schedule includes the controlled substances listed or to be listed by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or trade name designated. In determining that a substance comes within this schedule, the Commission shall find: a potential for abuse less than the substances listed in Schedules I and II; currently accepted medical use in the United States; and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(a)        Repealed by Session Laws 1973, c. 540, s. 5.

(b)        Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system unless specifically exempted or listed in another schedule:

1.         Any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid, or any salt of a derivative of barbituric acid.

2.         Chlorhexadol.

3.         Repealed by Session Laws 1993, c. 319, s. 5.

4.         Lysergic acid.

5.         Lysergic acid amide.

6.         Methyprylon.

7.         Sulfondiethylmethane.

8.         Sulfonethylmethane.

9.         Sulfonmethane.

9a.       Tiletamine and zolazepam or any salt thereof. Some trade or other names for tiletamine-zolazepam combination product: Telazol. Some trade or other names for tiletamine:

2-(ethylamino)-2-(2-thienyl)-cyclohexanone. Some trade or other names for zolazepam: 4-(2-fluorophenyl)-6,8-dihydro-1,3,8-trimethylpyrazolo-[3,4-e][ 1,4]/y-diazepin-7(1H)-one. flupyrazapon.

10.       Any compound, mixture or preparation containing

(i)         Amobarbital.

(ii)        Secobarbital.

(iii)       Pentobarbital.

or any salt thereof and one or more active ingredients which are not included in any other schedule.

11.       Any suppository dosage form containing

(i)         Amobarbital.

(ii)        Secobarbital.

(iii)       Pentobarbital.

or any salt of any of these drugs and approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration for marketing as a suppository.

12.       Ketamine.

(c)        Nalorphine.

(d)        Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts thereof unless specifically exempted or listed in another schedule:

1.         Not more than 1.80 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.

2.         Not more than 1.80 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

3.         Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit with a four-fold or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.

4.         Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

5.         Not more than 1.80 grams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

6.         Not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

7.         Not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, or not more than 25 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

8.         Not more than 50 milligrams of morphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(e)        Any compound, mixture or preparation containing limited quantities of the following narcotic drugs, which shall include one or more active, nonnarcotic, medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation, valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone:

1.         Paregoric, U.S.P.; provided, that no person shall purchase or receive by any means whatsoever more than one fluid ounce of paregoric within a consecutive 24-hour period, except on prescription issued by a duly licensed physician.

(f)         Paregoric, U.S.P., may be dispensed at retail as permitted by federal law or administrative regulation without a prescription only by a registered pharmacist and no other person, agency or employee may dispense paregoric, U.S.P., even if under the direct supervision of a pharmacist.

(g)        Notwithstanding the provisions of G.S. 90-91(f), after the pharmacist has fulfilled his professional responsibilities and legal responsibilities required of him in this Article, the actual cash transaction, credit transaction, or delivery of paregoric, U.S.P., may be completed by a nonpharmacist. A pharmacist may refuse to dispense a paregoric, U.S.P., substance until he is satisfied that the product is being obtained for medicinal purposes only.

(h)        Paregoric, U.S.P., may only be sold at retail without a prescription to a person at least 18 years of age. A pharmacist must require every retail purchaser of a paregoric, U.S.P., substance to furnish suitable identification, including proof of age when appropriate, in order to purchase paregoric, U.S.P. The name and address obtained from such identification shall be entered in the record of disposition to consumers.

(i)         The Commission may by regulation except any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any stimulant or depressant substance listed in paragraphs (a)1 and (a)2 of this schedule from the application of all or any part of this Article if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system; and if the ingredients are included therein in such combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration that vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which have a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system.

(j)         Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of said isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation, unless specifically excluded or listed in some other schedule.

1.         Benzphetamine.

2.         Chlorphentermine.

3.         Clortermine.

4.         Repealed by Session Laws 1987, c. 412, s. 10.

5.         Phendimetrazine.

(k)        Anabolic steroids. The term "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth, including, but not limited to, the following:

1.         Methandrostenolone,

2.         Stanozolol,

3.         Ethylestrenol,

4.         Nandrolone phenpropionate,

5.         Nandrolone decanoate,

6.         Testosterone propionate,

7.         Chorionic gonadotropin,

8.         Boldenone,

9.         Chlorotestosterone (4-chlorotestosterone),

10.       Clostebol,

11.       Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone,

12.       Dibydrostestosterone (4-dihydrotestosterone),

13.       Drostanolone,

14.       Fluoxymesterone,

15.       Formebulone (formebolone),

16.       Mesterolene,

17.       Methandienone,

18.       Methandranone,

19.       Methandriol,

20.       Methenolene,

21.       Methyltestosterone,

22.       Mibolerone,

23.       Nandrolene,

24.       Norethandrolene,

25.       Oxandrolone,

26.       Oxymesterone,

27.       Oxymetholone,

28.       Stanolone,

29.       Testolactone,

30.       Testosterone,

31.       Trenbolone, and

32.       Any salt, ester, or isomer of a drug or substance described or listed in this subsection, if that salt, ester, or isomer promotes muscle growth. Except such term does not include an anabolic steroid which is expressly intended for administration through implants to cattle or other nonhuman species and which has been approved by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for such administration. If any person prescribes, dispenses, or distributes such steroid for human use, such person shall be considered to have prescribed, dispensed, or distributed an anabolic steroid within the meaning of this subsection.

(l)         Repealed by Session Laws 2001-233, s. 3(a), effective June 21, 2001.

(m)       Any drug product containing gamma hydroxybutyric acid, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, for which an application is approved under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(n)        Dronabinol (synthetic) in sesame oil and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule in a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved drug product. [Some other names: (6aR-trans), -6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo [b,d]pyran-1-o1 or (-)-delta-9-(trans)-tetrahydrocannabinol].  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 540, s. 5; c. 1358, ss. 7, 15; 1975, c. 442; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1979, c. 434, s. 3; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1987, c. 412, ss. 8-10; 1987 (Reg. Sess., 1988), c. 1055; 1991, c. 413, s. 1; 1993, c. 319, s. 5; 1999-370, s. 3; 2000-140, s. 92.2(b); 2001-233, ss. 2(b), 3(a), 3(b); 2011-326, s. 14(e).)

 

§ 90-92.  Schedule IV controlled substances.

(a)        This schedule includes the controlled substances listed or to be listed by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or trade name designated. In determining that a substance comes within this schedule, the Commission shall find: a low potential for abuse relative to the substances listed in Schedule III of this Article; currently accepted medical use in the United States; and limited physical or pyschological dependence relative to the substances listed in Schedule III of this Article. The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1)        Depressants. - Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

a.         Alprazolam.

b.         Barbital.

c.         Bromazepam.

d.         Camazepam.

e.         Chloral betaine.

f.          Chloral hydrate.

g.         Chlordiazepoxide.

h.         Clobazam.

i.          Clonazepam.

j.          Clorazepate.

k.         Clotiazepam.

l .         Cloxazolam.

m.        Delorazepam.

n.         Diazepam.

o.         Estazolam.

p.         Ethchlorvynol.

q.         Ethinamate.

r.          Ethyl loflazepate.

s.          Fludiazepam.

t.          Flunitrazepam.

u.         Flurazepam.

v.         Repealed by Session Laws 2000, c. 140, s. 92.2(c).

w.        Halazepam.

x.         Haloxazolam.

y.         Ketazolam.

z.          Loprazolam.

aa.        Lorazepam.

bb.       Lormetazepam.

cc.        Mebutamate.

dd.       Medazepam.

ee.        Meprobamate.

ff.         Methohexital.

gg.        Methylphenobarbital (mephobarbital).

hh.        Midazolam.

ii.          Nimetazepam.

jj.         Nitrazepam.

kk.       Nordiazepam.

ll .         Oxazepam.

mm.      Oxazolam.

nn.        Paraldehyde.

oo.       Petrichloral.

pp.       Phenobarbital.

qq.       Pinazepam.

rr.         Prazepam.

ss.        Quazepam.

tt.         Temazepam.

uu.        Tetrazepam.

vv.        Triazolam.

ww.      Zolpidem.

xx.        Zaleplon.

(2)        Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any of the following substances, including its salts, or isomers and salts of such isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible:

a.         Fenfluramine.

b.         Pentazocine.

(3)        Stimulants. - Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of such isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

a.         Diethylpropion.

b.         Mazindol.

c.         Pemoline (including organometallic complexes and chelates thereof).

d.         Phentermine.

e.         Cathine.

f.          Fencamfamin.

g.         Fenproporex.

h.         Mefenorex.

i.          Sibutramine.

j.          Modafinil.

(4)        Other Substances. - Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including its salts:

a.         Dextropropoxyphene (Alpha-(plus)-4-dimethylamino-1, 2-diphenyl-3-methyl-2-propionoxybutane).

b.         Pipradrol.

c.         SPA ((-)-1-dimethylamino-1, 2-diphenylethane).

d.         Butorphanol.

(5)        Narcotic Drugs. - Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts thereof:

a.         Not more than 1 milligram of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

b.         Buprenorphine.

(b)        The Commission may by regulation except any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any stimulant or depressant substance listed in this schedule from the application of all or any part of this Article if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active, nonnarcotic, medicinal ingredients not having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system; provided, that such admixtures shall be included therein in such combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration as to vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which do have a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 1358, ss. 8, 15; c. 1446, s. 5; 1975, cc. 401, 819; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; c. 891, s. 3; 1979, c. 434, ss. 4-6; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1985, c. 172, ss. 6-8; c. 439, s. 1; 1987, c. 412, ss. 11, 12; 1993, c. 319, s. 6; 1995, c. 509, s. 38; 1997-456, s. 27; 1997-501, s. 1; 1999-165, s. 3; 2000-140, s. 92.2(c); 2001-233, s. 4.)

 

§ 90-93.  Schedule V controlled substances.

(a)        This schedule includes the controlled substances listed or to be listed by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or trade name designated.  In determining that a substance comes within this schedule, the Commission shall find: a low potential for abuse relative to the substances listed in Schedule IV of this Article; currently accepted medical use in the United States; and limited physical or psychological dependence relative to the substances listed in Schedule IV of this Article.  The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1)        Any compound, mixture or preparation containing any of the following limited quantities of narcotic drugs or salts thereof, which shall include one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic alone:

a.         Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine or any of its salts per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

b.         Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine or any of its salts per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

c.         Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine or any of its salts per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

d.         Not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

e.         Not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

f.          Not more than 0.5 milligram of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

(2)        Repealed by Session Laws 1985, c. 172, s. 9.

(3)        Stimulants. - Unless specifically exempted or excluded or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers and salts of isomers:

a.         Repealed by Session Laws 1993, c. 319, s. 7.

b.         Pyrovalerone.

(b)        A Schedule V substance may be sold at retail without a prescription only by a registered pharmacist and no other person, agent or employee may sell a Schedule V substance even if under the direct supervision of a pharmacist.

(c)        Notwithstanding the provisions of G.S. 90-93(b), after the pharmacist has fulfilled the responsibilities required of him in this Article, the actual cash transaction, credit transaction, or delivery of a Schedule V substance, may be completed by a nonpharmacist.  A pharmacist may refuse to sell a Schedule V substance until he is satisfied that the product is being obtained for medicinal purposes only.

(d)        A Schedule V substance may be sold at retail without a prescription only to a person at least 18 years of age.  The pharmacist must require every retail purchaser of a Schedule V substance to furnish suitable identification, including proof of age when appropriate, in order to purchase a Schedule V substance.  The name and address obtained from such identification shall be entered in the record of disposition to consumers. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 1358, ss. 9, 15; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1979, c. 434, ss. 7, 8; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1985, c. 172, s. 9; 1989 (Reg. Sess., 1990), c. 1040, s. 3; 1993, c. 319, s. 7; 1997-456, s. 27.)

 

§ 90-94.  Schedule VI controlled substances.

This schedule includes the controlled substances listed or to be listed by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or trade name designated. In determining that such substance comes within this schedule, the Commission shall find: no currently accepted medical use in the United States, or a relatively low potential for abuse in terms of risk to public health and potential to produce psychic or physiological dependence liability based upon present medical knowledge, or a need for further and continuing study to develop scientific evidence of its pharmacological effects.

The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1)        Marijuana.

(2)        Tetrahydrocannabinols.

(3)        Synthetic cannabinoids. - Any quantity of any synthetic chemical compound that (i) is a cannabinoid receptor agonist and mimics the pharmacological effect of naturally occurring substances or (ii) has a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is not listed as a controlled substance in Schedule I through V, and is not an FDA-approved drug. Synthetic cannabinoids include, but are not limited to, the substances listed in sub-subdivisions a. through j. of this subdivision and any substance that contains any quantity of their salts, isomers (whether optical, positional, or geometric), homologues, and salts of isomers and homologues, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of these salts, isomers, homologues, and salts of isomers and homologues is possible within the specific chemical designation. The following substances are examples of synthetic cannabinoids and are not intended to be inclusive of the substances included in this Schedule:

a.         Naphthoylindoles. Any compound containing a 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent. Some trade or other names: JWH-015, JWH-018, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-200, JWH-210, JWH-398, AM-2201, WIN 55-212.

b.         Naphthylmethylindoles. Any compound containing a 1H-indol-3-yl-(1-naphthyl)methane structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent.

c.         Naphthoylpyrroles. Any compound containing a 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent. Another name: JWH-307.

d.         Naphthylmethylindenes. Any compound containing a naphthylideneindene structure with substitution at the 3-position of the indene ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent.

e.         Phenylacetylindoles. Any compound containing a 3-phenylacetylindole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent. Some trade or other names: SR-18, RCS-8, JWH-250, JWH-203.

f.          Cyclohexylphenols. Any compound containing a 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol structure with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not substituted in the cyclohexyl ring to any extent. Some trade or other names: CP 47,497 (and homologues), cannabicyclohexanol.

g.         Benzoylindoles. Any compound containing a 3-(benzoyl)indole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent. Some trade or other names: AM-694, Pravadoline (WIN 48,098), RCS-4.

h.         2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1, 4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone. Some trade or other names: WIN 55,212-2.

i.          (6aR,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6, 6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl) - 6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol 7370. Some trade or other names: HU-210.

j.          Tetramethylcyclopropanoylindoles. Any compound containing a 3-tetramethylcyclopropanoylindole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3- morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the tetramethylcyclopropyl ring to any extent. Some trade name or other names: "XLR-11."  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 1358, s. 15; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1997-456, s. 27; 2011-12, s. 5; 2013-109, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-95.  Violations; penalties.

(a)        Except as authorized by this Article, it is unlawful for any person:

(1)        To manufacture, sell or deliver, or possess with intent to manufacture, sell or deliver, a controlled substance;

(2)        To create, sell or deliver, or possess with intent to sell or deliver, a counterfeit controlled substance;

(3)        To possess a controlled substance.

(b)        Except as provided in subsections (h) and (i) of this section, any person who violates G.S. 90-95(a)(1) with respect to:

(1)        A controlled substance classified in Schedule I or II shall be punished as a Class H felon, except as follows: (i) the sale of a controlled substance classified in Schedule I or II shall be punished as a Class G felony, and (ii) the manufacture of methamphetamine shall be punished as provided by subdivision (1a) of this subsection.

(1a)      The manufacture of methamphetamine shall be punished as a Class C felony unless the offense was one of the following: packaging or repackaging methamphetamine, or labeling or relabeling the methamphetamine container. The offense of packaging or repackaging methamphetamine, or labeling or relabeling the methamphetamine container shall be punished as a Class H felony.

(2)        A controlled substance classified in Schedule III, IV, V, or VI shall be punished as a Class I felon, except that the sale of a controlled substance classified in Schedule III, IV, V, or VI shall be punished as a Class H felon. The transfer of less than 5 grams of marijuana or less than 2.5 grams of a synthetic cannabinoid or any mixture containing such substance for no remuneration shall not constitute a delivery in violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1).

(c)        Any person who violates G.S. 90-95(a)(2) shall be punished as a Class I felon.

(d)        Except as provided in subsections (h) and (i) of this section, any person who violates G.S. 90-95(a)(3) with respect to:

(1)        A controlled substance classified in Schedule I shall be punished as a Class I felon. However, if the controlled substance is MDPV and the quantity of the MDPV is 1 gram or less, the violation shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.

(2)        A controlled substance classified in Schedule II, III, or IV shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. If the controlled substance exceeds four tablets, capsules, or other dosage units or equivalent quantity of hydromorphone or if the quantity of the controlled substance, or combination of the controlled substances, exceeds one hundred tablets, capsules or other dosage units, or equivalent quantity, the violation shall be punishable as a Class I felony. If the controlled substance is methamphetamine, amphetamine, phencyclidine, or cocaine and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof, or coca leaves and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves, or any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances (except decocanized coca leaves or any extraction of coca leaves which does not contain cocaine or ecgonine), the violation shall be punishable as a Class I felony.

(3)        A controlled substance classified in Schedule V shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor;

(4)        A controlled substance classified in Schedule VI shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor, but any sentence of imprisonment imposed must be suspended and the judge may not require at the time of sentencing that the defendant serve a period of imprisonment as a special condition of probation. If the quantity of the controlled substance exceeds one-half of an ounce (avoirdupois) of marijuana, 7 grams of a synthetic cannabinoid or any mixture containing such substance, or one-twentieth of an ounce (avoirdupois) of the extracted resin of marijuana, commonly known as hashish, the violation shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor. If the quantity of the controlled substance exceeds one and one-half ounces (avoirdupois) of marijuana, 21 grams of a synthetic cannabinoid or any mixture containing such substance, or three-twentieths of an ounce (avoirdupois) of the extracted resin of marijuana, commonly known as hashish, or if the controlled substance consists of any quantity of synthetic tetrahydrocannabinols or tetrahydrocannabinols isolated from the resin of marijuana, the violation shall be punishable as a Class I felony.

(d1)     (1)        Except as authorized by this Article, it is unlawful for any person to:

a.         Possess an immediate precursor chemical with intent to manufacture a controlled substance; or

b.         Possess or distribute an immediate precursor chemical knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the immediate precursor chemical will be used to manufacture a controlled substance; [or]

c.         Possess a pseudoephedrine product if the person has a prior conviction for the possession or manufacture of methamphetamine.

Any person who violates this subsection shall be punished as a Class H felon, unless the immediate precursor is one that can be used to manufacture methamphetamine.

(2)        Except as authorized by this Article, it is unlawful for any person to:

a.         Possess an immediate precursor chemical with intent to manufacture methamphetamine; or

b.         Possess or distribute an immediate precursor chemical knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the immediate precursor chemical will be used to manufacture methamphetamine.

Any person who violates this subdivision shall be punished as a Class F felon.

(d2)      The immediate precursor chemicals to which subsection (d1) and (d1a) of this section applies are those immediate precursor chemicals designated by the Commission pursuant to its authority under G.S. 90-88, and the following (until otherwise specified by the Commission):

(1)        Acetic anhydride.

(2)        Acetone.

(3)        Anhydrous ammonia.

(4)        Anthranilic acid.

(5)        Benzyl chloride.

(6)        Benzyl cyanide.

(7)        2-Butanone (Methyl Ethyl Ketone).

(8)        Chloroephedrine.

(9)        Chloropseudoephedrine.

(10)      D-lysergic acid.

(11)      Ephedrine.

(12)      Ergonovine maleate.

(13)      Ergotamine tartrate.

(14)      Ethyl ether.

(15)      Ethyl Malonate.

(16)      Ethylamine.

(17)      Gamma-butyrolactone.

(18)      Hydrochloric Acid.

(19)      Iodine.

(20)      Isosafrole.

(21)      Lithium.

(22)      Malonic acid.

(23)      Methylamine.

(24)      Methyl Isobutyl Ketone.

(25)      N-acetylanthranilic acid.

(26)      N-ethylephedrine.

(27)      N-ethylepseudoephedrine.

(28)      N-methylephedrine.

(29)      N-methylpseudoephedrine.

(30)      Norpseudoephedrine.

(31)      Phenyl-2-propane.

(32)      Phenylacetic acid.

(33)      Phenylpropanolamine.

(34)      Piperidine.

(35)      Piperonal.

(36)      Propionic anhydride.

(37)      Pseudoephedrine.

(38)      Pyrrolidine.

(39)      Red phosphorous.

(40)      Safrole.

(41)      Sodium.

(42)      Sulfuric Acid.

(43)      Tetrachloroethylene.

(44)      Thionylchloride.

(45)      Toluene.

(e)        The prescribed punishment and degree of any offense under this Article shall be subject to the following conditions, but the punishment for an offense may be increased only by the maximum authorized under any one of the applicable conditions:

(1),       (2) Repealed by Session Laws 1979, c. 760, s. 5.

(3)        If any person commits a Class 1 misdemeanor under this Article and if he has previously been convicted for one or more offenses under any law of North Carolina or any law of the United States or any other state, which offenses are punishable under any provision of this Article, he shall be punished as a Class I felon. The prior conviction used to raise the current offense to a Class I felony shall not be used to calculate the prior record level.

(4)        If any person commits a Class 2 misdemeanor, and if he has previously been convicted for one or more offenses under any law of North Carolina or any law of the United States or any other state, which offenses are punishable under any provision of this Article, he shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The prior conviction used to raise the current offense to a Class 1 misdemeanor shall not be used to calculate the prior conviction level.

(5)        Any person 18 years of age or over who violates G.S. 90-95(a)(1) by selling or delivering a controlled substance to a person under 16 years of age but more than 13 years of age or a pregnant female shall be punished as a Class D felon. Any person 18 years of age or over who violates G.S. 90-95(a)(1) by selling or delivering a controlled substance to a person who is 13 years of age or younger shall be punished as a Class C felon. Mistake of age is not a defense to a prosecution under this section. It shall not be a defense that the defendant did not know that the recipient was pregnant.

(6)        For the purpose of increasing punishment under G.S. 90-95(e)(3) and (e)(4), previous convictions for offenses shall be counted by the number of separate trials at which final convictions were obtained and not by the number of charges at a single trial.

(7)        If any person commits an offense under this Article for which the prescribed punishment requires that any sentence of imprisonment be suspended, and if he has previously been convicted for one or more offenses under any law of North Carolina or any law of the United States or any other state, which offenses are punishable under any provision of this Article, he shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

(8)        Any person 21 years of age or older who commits an offense under G.S. 90-95(a)(1) on property used for a child care center, or for an elementary or secondary school or within 1,000 feet of the boundary of real property used for a child care center, or for an elementary or secondary school shall be punished as a Class E felon. For purposes of this subdivision, the transfer of less than five grams of marijuana for no remuneration shall not constitute a delivery in violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1). For purposes of this subdivision, a child care center is as defined in G.S. 110-86(3)a., and that is licensed by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services.

(9)        Any person who violates G.S. 90-95(a)(3) on the premises of a penal institution or local confinement facility shall be guilty of a Class H felony.

(10)      Any person 21 years of age or older who commits an offense under G.S. 90-95(a)(1) on property that is a public park or within 1,000 feet of the boundary of real property that is a public park shall be punished as a Class E felon. For purposes of this subdivision, the transfer of less than five grams of marijuana for no remuneration shall not constitute a delivery in violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1).

(f)         Any person convicted of an offense or offenses under this Article who is sentenced to an active term of imprisonment that is less than the maximum active term that could have been imposed may, in addition, be sentenced to a term of special probation. Except as indicated in this subsection, the administration of special probation shall be the same as probation. The conditions of special probation shall be fixed in the same manner as probation, and the conditions may include requirements for rehabilitation treatment. Special probation shall follow the active sentence. No term of special probation shall exceed five years. Special probation may be revoked in the same manner as probation; upon revocation, the original term of imprisonment may be increased by no more than the difference between the active term of imprisonment actually served and the maximum active term that could have been imposed at trial for the offense or offenses for which the person was convicted, and the resulting term of imprisonment need not be diminished by the time spent on special probation.

(g)        Whenever matter is submitted to the North Carolina State Crime Laboratory, the Charlotte, North Carolina, Police Department Laboratory or to the Toxicology Laboratory, Reynolds Health Center, Winston-Salem for chemical analysis to determine if the matter is or contains a controlled substance, the report of that analysis certified to upon a form approved by the Attorney General by the person performing the analysis shall be admissible without further authentication and without the testimony of the analyst in all proceedings in the district court and superior court divisions of the General Court of Justice as evidence of the identity, nature, and quantity of the matter analyzed. Provided, however, the provisions of this subsection may be utilized by the State only if:

(1)        The State notifies the defendant at least 15 business days before the proceeding at which the report would be used of its intention to introduce the report into evidence under this subsection and provides a copy of the report to the defendant, and

(2)        The defendant fails to file a written objection with the court, with a copy to the State, at least five business days before the proceeding that the defendant objects to the introduction of the report into evidence.

If the defendant's attorney of record, or the defendant if that person has no attorney, fails to file a written objection as provided in this subsection, then the report shall be admitted into evidence without the testimony of the analyst. Upon filing a timely objection, the admissibility of the report shall be determined and governed by the appropriate rules of evidence.

Nothing in this subsection precludes the right of any party to call any witness or to introduce any evidence supporting or contradicting the evidence contained in the report.

(g1)      Procedure for establishing chain of custody without calling unnecessary witnesses. -

(1)        For the purpose of establishing the chain of physical custody or control of evidence consisting of or containing a substance tested or analyzed to determine whether it is a controlled substance, a statement signed by each successive person in the chain of custody that the person delivered it to the other person indicated on or about the date stated is prima facie evidence that the person had custody and made the delivery as stated, without the necessity of a personal appearance in court by the person signing the statement.

(2)        The statement shall contain a sufficient description of the material or its container so as to distinguish it as the particular item in question and shall state that the material was delivered in essentially the same condition as received. The statement may be placed on the same document as the report provided for in subsection (g) of this section.

(3)        The provisions of this subsection may be utilized by the State only if:

a.         The State notifies the defendant at least 15 days before trial of its intention to introduce the statement into evidence under this subsection and provides the defendant with a copy of the statement, and

b.         The defendant fails to notify the State at least five days before trial that the defendant objects to the introduction of the statement into evidence.

If the defendant's attorney of record, or the defendant if that person has no attorney, fails to file a written objection as provided in this subsection, then the statement shall be admitted into evidence without the necessity of a personal appearance by the person signing the statement. Upon filing a timely objection, the admissibility of the report shall be determined and governed by the appropriate rules of evidence.

(4)        Nothing in this subsection precludes the right of any party to call any witness or to introduce any evidence supporting or contradicting the evidence contained in the statement.

(h)        Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the following provisions apply except as otherwise provided in this Article.

(1)        Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses in excess of 10 pounds (avoirdupois) of marijuana shall be guilty of a felony which felony shall be known as "trafficking in marijuana" and if the quantity of such substance involved:

a.         Is in excess of 10 pounds, but less than 50 pounds, such person shall be punished as a Class H felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 25 months and a maximum term of 39 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than five thousand dollars ($5,000);

b.         Is 50 pounds or more, but less than 2,000 pounds, such person shall be punished as a Class G felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 35 months and a maximum term of 51 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000);

c.         Is 2,000 pounds or more, but less than 10,000 pounds, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

d.         Is 10,000 pounds or more, such person shall be punished as a Class D felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 175 months and a maximum term of 222 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000).

(1a)      For the purpose of this subsection, a "dosage unit" shall consist of 3 grams of synthetic cannabinoid or any mixture containing such substance. Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses in excess of 50 dosage units of a synthetic cannabinoid or any mixture containing such substance, shall be guilty of a felony, which felony shall be known as "trafficking in synthetic cannabinoids," and if the quantity of such substance involved:

a.         Is in excess of 50 dosage units, but less than 250 dosage units, such person shall be punished as a Class H felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 25 months and a maximum term of 39 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than five thousand dollars ($5,000);

b.         Is 250 dosage units or more, but less than 1250 dosage units, such person shall be punished as a Class G felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 35 months and a maximum term of 51 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000);

c.         Is 1250 dosage units or more, but less than 3750 dosage units, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

d.         Is 3750 dosage units or more, such person shall be punished as a Class D felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 175 months and a maximum term of 222 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000).

(2)        Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses 1,000 tablets, capsules or other dosage units, or the equivalent quantity, or more of methaqualone, or any mixture containing such substance, shall be guilty of a felony which felony shall be known as "trafficking in methaqualone" and if the quantity of such substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is 1,000 or more dosage units, or equivalent quantity, but less than 5,000 dosage units, or equivalent quantity, such person shall be punished as a Class G felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 35 months and a maximum term of 51 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000);

b.         Is 5,000 or more dosage units, or equivalent quantity, but less than 10,000 dosage units, or equivalent quantity, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

c.         Is 10,000 or more dosage units, or equivalent quantity, such person shall be punished as a Class D felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 175 months and a maximum term of 222 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000).

(3)        Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses 28 grams or more of cocaine and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof, or any coca leaves and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves, and any salt, isomer, salts of isomers, compound, derivative or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances (except decocainized coca leaves or any extraction of coca leaves which does not contain cocaine) or any mixture containing such substances, shall be guilty of a felony, which felony shall be known as "trafficking in cocaine" and if the quantity of such substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class G felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 35 months and a maximum term of 51 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

b.         Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000);

c.         Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be punished as a Class D felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 175 months and a maximum term of 222 months in the State's prison and shall be fined at least two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000).

(3a)      Repealed by Session Laws 1999-370, s. 1, effective December 1, 1999.

(3b)      Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses 28 grams or more of methamphetamine or any mixture containing such substance shall be guilty of a felony which felony shall be known as "trafficking in methamphetamine" and if the quantity of such substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

b.         Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class E felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 90 months and a maximum term of 120 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000);

c.         Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be punished as a Class C felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 225 months and a maximum term of 282 months in the State's prison and shall be fined at least two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000).

(3c)      Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses 28 grams or more of amphetamine or any mixture containing such substance shall be guilty of a felony, which felony shall be known as "trafficking in amphetamine", and if the quantity of such substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class H felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 25 months and a maximum term of 39 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than five thousand dollars ($5,000);

b.         Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class G felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 35 months and a maximum term of 51 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000);

c.         Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be punished as a Class E felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 90 months and a maximum term of 120 months in the State's prison and shall be fined at least one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000).

(3d)      Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses 28 grams or more of MDPV or any mixture containing such substance shall be guilty of a felony, which felony shall be known as "trafficking in MDPV," and if the quantity of such substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

b.         Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class E felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 90 months and a maximum term of 120 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000);

c.         Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be punished as a Class C felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 225 months and a maximum term of 282 months in the State's prison and shall be fined at least two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000).

(3e)      Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses 28 grams or more of mephedrone or any mixture containing such substance shall be guilty of a felony, which felony shall be known as "trafficking in mephedrone," and if the quantity of such substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

b.         Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class E felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 90 months and a maximum term of 120 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000);

c.         Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be punished as a Class C felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 225 months and a maximum term of 282 months in the State's prison and shall be fined at least two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000).

(4)        Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses four grams or more of opium or opiate, or any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate (except apomorphine, nalbuphine, analoxone and naltrexone and their respective salts), including heroin, or any mixture containing such substance, shall be guilty of a felony which felony shall be known as "trafficking in opium or heroin" and if the quantity of such controlled substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is four grams or more, but less than 14 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

b.         Is 14 grams or more, but less than 28 grams, such person shall be punished as a Class E felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 90 months and a maximum term of 120 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000);

c.         Is 28 grams or more, such person shall be punished as a Class C felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 225 months and a maximum term of 282 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000).

(4a)      Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses 100 tablets, capsules, or other dosage units, or the equivalent quantity, or more, of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, or any mixture containing such substance, shall be guilty of a felony, which felony shall be known as "trafficking in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide". If the quantity of such substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is 100 or more dosage units, or equivalent quantity, but less than 500 dosage units, or equivalent quantity, such person shall be punished as a Class G felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 35 months and a maximum term of 51 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000);

b.         Is 500 or more dosage units, or equivalent quantity, but less than 1,000 dosage units, or equivalent quantity, such person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

c.         Is 1,000 or more dosage units, or equivalent quantity, such person shall be punished as a Class D felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 175 months and a maximum term of 222 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000).

(4b)      Any person who sells, manufactures, delivers, transports, or possesses 100 or more tablets, capsules, or other dosage units, or 28 grams or more of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, or any mixture containing such substances, shall be guilty of a felony, which felony shall be known as "trafficking in MDA/DMA." If the quantity of the substance or mixture involved:

a.         Is 100 or more tablets, capsules, or other dosage units, but less than 500 tablets, capsules, or other dosage units, or 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, the person shall be punished as a Class G felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 35 months and a maximum term of 51 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000);

b.         Is 500 or more tablets, capsules, or other dosage units, but less than 1,000 tablets, capsules, or other dosage units, or 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, the person shall be punished as a Class F felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 70 months and a maximum term of 93 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000);

c.         Is 1,000 or more tablets, capsules, or other dosage units, or 400 grams or more, the person shall be punished as a Class D felon and shall be sentenced to a minimum term of 175 months and a maximum term of 222 months in the State's prison and shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000).

(5)        Except as provided in this subdivision, a person being sentenced under this subsection may not receive a suspended sentence or be placed on probation. The sentencing judge may reduce the fine, or impose a prison term less than the applicable minimum prison term provided by this subsection, or suspend the prison term imposed and place a person on probation when such person has, to the best of his knowledge, provided substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any accomplices, accessories, co-conspirators, or principals if the sentencing judge enters in the record a finding that the person to be sentenced has rendered such substantial assistance.

(6)        Sentences imposed pursuant to this subsection shall run consecutively with and shall commence at the expiration of any sentence being served by the person sentenced hereunder.

(i)         The penalties provided in subsection (h) of this section shall also apply to any person who is convicted of conspiracy to commit any of the offenses described in subsection (h) of this section.  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 654, s. 1; c. 1078; c. 1358, s. 10; 1975, c. 360, s. 2; 1977, c. 862, ss. 1, 2; 1979, c. 760, s. 5; 1979, 2nd Sess., c. 1251, ss. 4-7; 1983, c. 18; c. 294, s. 6; c. 414; 1985, c. 569, s. 1; c. 675, ss. 1, 2; 1987, c. 90; c. 105, ss. 4, 5; c. 640, ss. 1, 2; c. 783, s. 4; 1989, c. 641; c. 672; c. 690; c. 770, s. 68; 1989 (Reg. Sess., 1990), c. 1024, s. 17; c. 1039, s. 5; c. 1081, s. 2; 1991, c. 484, s. 1; 1993, c. 538, s. 30; c. 539, s. 1358.1; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 11, s. 1; c. 14, ss. 46, 47; c. 24, s. 14(b); 1996, 2nd Ex. Sess., c. 18, s. 20.13(c); 1997-304, ss. 1, 2; 1997-443, s. 19.25(b), (u), (ii); 1998-212, s. 17.16(e); 1999-165, s. 4; 1999-370, s. 1; 2000-140, s. 92.2(d); 2001-307, s. 1; 2001-332, s. 1; 2004-178, ss. 3, 4, 5, 6; 2007-375, s. 1; 2009-463, ss. 1, 2; 2009-473, s. 7; 2011-12, ss. 2-4, 6-8; 2011-19, s. 5; 2012-188, s. 5; 2013-124, s. 1; 2013-171, ss. 7, 8.)

 

§ 90-95.1.  Continuing criminal enterprise.

(a)        Any person who engages in a continuing criminal enterprise shall be punished as a Class C felon and in addition shall be subject to the forfeiture prescribed in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)        Any person who is convicted under subsection (a) of engaging in a continuing criminal enterprise shall forfeit to the State of North Carolina:

(1)        The profits obtained by him in such enterprise, and

(2)        Any of his interest in, claim against, or property or contractual rights of any kind affording a source of influence over, such enterprise.

(c)        For purposes of this section, a person is engaged in a continuing criminal enterprise if:

(1)        He violates any provision of this Article, the punishment of which is a felony; and

(2)        Such violation is a part of a continuing series of violations of this Article;

a.         Which are undertaken by such person in concert with five or more other persons with respect to whom such person occupies a position of organizer, a supervisory position, or any other position of management; and

b.         From which such person obtains substantial income or resources.

(d)        Repealed by Session Laws 1979, c. 760, s. 5. (1971, s. 919, s. 1; 1979, c. 760, s. 5.)

 

§ 90-95.2.  Cooperation between law-enforcement agencies.

(a)        The head of any law-enforcement agency may temporarily provide assistance to another agency in enforcing the provisions of this Article if so requested in writing by the head of the other agency. The assistance may comprise allowing officers of the agency to work temporarily with officers of the other agency (including in an undercover capacity) and lending equipment and supplies. While working with another agency under the authority of this section, an officer shall have the same jurisdiction, powers, rights, privileges, and immunities (including those relating to the defense of civil actions and payment of judgments) as the officers of the requesting agency in addition to those he normally possesses. While on duty with the other agency, he shall be subject to the lawful operational commands of his superior officers in the other agency, but he shall for personnel and administrative purposes remain under the control of his own agency, including for purposes of pay. He shall furthermore be entitled to workers' compensation when acting pursuant to this section to the same extent as though he were functioning within the normal scope of his duties.

(b)        As used in this section:

(1)        "Head" means any director or chief officer of a law-enforcement agency, including the chief of police of a local police department and the sheriff of a county, or an officer of the agency to whom the head of the agency has delegated authority to make or grant requests under this section, but only one officer in the agency shall have this delegated authority at any time.

(2)        "Law-enforcement agency" means any State or local agency, force, department, or unit responsible for enforcing criminal laws in this State, including any local police department or sheriff's department.

(c)        This section in no way reduces the jurisdiction or authority of State law-enforcement officers. (1975, c. 782, s. 1; 1981, c. 93, s. 1; 1991, c. 636, s. 3.)

 

§ 90-95.3.  Restitution to law-enforcement agencies for undercover purchases; restitution for drug analyses; restitution for seizure and cleanup of clandestine laboratories.

(a)        When any person is convicted of an offense under this Article, the court may order him to make restitution to any law-enforcement agency for reasonable expenditures made in purchasing controlled substances from him or his agent as part of an investigation leading to his conviction.

(b)        Repealed by Session Laws 2002-126, s. 29A.8(b), effective October 1, 2002. See Editor's Note.

(c)        When any person is convicted of an offense under this Article involving the manufacture of controlled substances, the court must order the person to make restitution for the actual cost of cleanup to the law enforcement agency that cleaned up any clandestine laboratory used to manufacture the controlled substances, including personnel overtime, equipment, and supplies. (1975, c. 782, s. 2; 1989 (Reg. Sess., 1990), c. 1039, s. 3; 1999-370, s. 2; 2002-126, s. 29A.8(b).)

 

§ 90-95.4.  Employing or intentionally using minor to commit a drug law violation.

(a)        A person who is at least 18 years old but less than 21 years old who hires or intentionally uses a minor to violate G.S. 90-95(a)(1) shall be guilty of a felony. An offense under this subsection shall be punishable as follows:

(1)        If the minor was more than 13 years of age, then as a felony that is one class more severe than the violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1) for which the minor was hired or intentionally used.

(2)        If the minor was 13 years of age or younger, then as a felony that is two classes more severe than the violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1) for which the minor was hired or intentionally used.

(b)        A person 21 years of age or older who hires or intentionally uses a minor to violate G.S. 90-95(a)(1) shall be guilty of a felony. An offense under this subsection shall be punishable as follows:

(1)        If the minor was more than 13 years of age, then as a felony that is three classes more severe than the violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1) for which the minor was hired or intentionally used.

(2)        If the minor was 13 years of age or younger, then as a felony that is four classes more severe than the violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1) for which the minor was hired or intentionally used.

(c)        Mistake of Age. - Mistake of age is not a defense to a prosecution under this section.

(d)        The term "minor" as used in this section is defined as an individual who is less than 18 years of age. (1989 (Reg. Sess., 1990), c. 1081, s. 1; 1998-212, s. 17.16(f).)

 

§ 90-95.5.  Civil liability - employing a minor to commit a drug offense.

A person 21 years of age or older, who hires, employs, or intentionally uses a person under 18 years of age to commit a violation of G.S. 90-95 is liable in a civil action for damages for drug addiction proximately caused by the violation. The doctrines of contributory negligence and assumption of risk are no defense to liability under this section. (1989 (Reg. Sess., 1990), c. 1081, s. 3; 1998-212, s. 17.16(g).)

 

§ 90-95.6.  Promoting drug sales by a minor.

(a)        A person who is 21 years of age or older is guilty of promoting drug sales by a minor if the person knowingly:

(1)        Entices, forces, encourages, or otherwise facilitates a minor in violating G.S. 90-95(a)(1).

(2)        Supervises, supports, advises, or protects the minor in violating G.S. 90-95(a)(1).

(b)        Mistake of age is not a defense to a prosecution under this section.

(c)        A violation of this section is a Class D felony. (1998-212, s. 17.16(h).)

 

§ 90-95.7.  Participating in a drug violation by a minor.

(a)        A person 21 years of age or older who purchases or receives a controlled substance from a minor 13 years of age or younger who possesses, sells, or delivers the controlled substance in violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1) is guilty of participating in a drug violation of a minor.

(b)        Mistake of age is not a defense to a prosecution under this section.

(c)        A violation of this section is a Class G felony. (1998-212, s. 17.16(h).)

 

§ 90-96.  Conditional discharge for first offense.

(a)        Whenever any person who has not previously been convicted of (i) any felony offense under any state or federal laws; (ii) any offense under this Article; or (iii) an offense under any statute of the United States or any state relating to those substances included in Article 5 or 5A of Chapter 90 or to that paraphernalia included in Article 5B of Chapter 90 of the General Statutes pleads guilty to or is found guilty of (i) a misdemeanor under this Article by possessing a controlled substance included within Schedules I through VI of this Article or by possessing drug paraphernalia as prohibited by G.S. 90-113.22, or (ii) a felony under G.S. 90-95(a)(3), the court shall, without entering a judgment of guilt and with the consent of such person, defer further proceedings and place him on probation upon such reasonable terms and conditions as it may require, unless the court determines with a written finding, and with the agreement of the District Attorney, that the offender is inappropriate for a conditional discharge for factors related to the offense. Notwithstanding the provisions of G.S. 15A-1342(c) or any other statute or law, probation may be imposed under this section for an offense under this Article for which the prescribed punishment includes only a fine. To fulfill the terms and conditions of probation the court may allow the defendant to participate in a drug education program approved for this purpose by the Department of Health and Human Services or in the Treatment for Effective Community Supervision Program under Subpart B of Part 6 of Article 13 of Chapter 143B of the General Statutes. Upon violation of a term or condition, the court may enter an adjudication of guilt and proceed as otherwise provided. Upon fulfillment of the terms and conditions, the court shall discharge such person and dismiss the proceedings against him. Discharge and dismissal under this section shall be without court adjudication of guilt and shall not be deemed a conviction for purposes of this section or for purposes of disqualifications or disabilities imposed by law upon conviction of a crime including the additional penalties imposed for second or subsequent convictions under this Article. Discharge and dismissal under this section or G.S. 90-113.14 may occur only once with respect to any person. Disposition of a case to determine discharge and dismissal under this section at the district court division of the General Court of Justice shall be final for the purpose of appeal. Prior to taking any action to discharge and dismiss under this section the court shall make a finding that the defendant has no record of previous convictions as provided in this subsection.

(a1)      Upon the first conviction only of any offense which qualifies under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, and the provisions of this subsection, the court may place defendant on probation under this section for an offense under this Article including an offense for which the prescribed punishment includes only a fine. The probation, if imposed, shall be for not less than one year and shall contain a minimum condition that the defendant who was found guilty or pleads guilty enroll in and successfully complete, within 150 days of the date of the imposition of said probation, the program of instruction at the drug education school approved by the Department of Health and Human Services pursuant to G.S. 90-96.01. The court may impose probation that does not contain a condition that defendant successfully complete the program of instruction at a drug education school if:

(1)        There is no drug education school within a reasonable distance of the defendant's residence; or

(2)        There are specific, extenuating circumstances which make it likely that defendant will not benefit from the program of instruction.

The court shall enter such specific findings in the record; provided that in the case of subdivision (2) above, such findings shall include the specific, extenuating circumstances which make it likely that the defendant will not benefit from the program of instruction.

Upon fulfillment of the terms and conditions of the probation, the court shall discharge such person and dismiss the proceedings against the person.

For the purposes of determining whether the conviction is a first conviction or whether a person has already had discharge and dismissal, no prior offense occurring more than seven years before the date of the current offense shall be considered. In addition, convictions for violations of a provision of G.S. 90-95(a)(1) or 90-95(a)(2) or 90-95(a)(3), or 90-113.10, or 90-113.11, or 90-113.12, or 90-113.22 shall be considered previous convictions.

Failure to complete successfully an approved program of instruction at a drug education school shall constitute grounds to revoke probation pursuant to this subsection and deny application for expunction of all recordation of defendant's arrest, indictment, or information, trial, finding of guilty, and dismissal and discharge pursuant to G.S. 15A-145.2. For purposes of this subsection, the phrase "failure to complete successfully the prescribed program of instruction at a drug education school" includes failure to attend scheduled classes without a valid excuse, failure to complete the course within 150 days of imposition of probation, willful failure to pay the required fee for the course as provided in G.S. 90-96.01(b), or any other manner in which the person fails to complete the course successfully. The instructor of the course to which a person is assigned shall report any failure of a person to complete successfully the program of instruction to the court which imposed probation. Upon receipt of the instructor's report that the person failed to complete the program successfully, the court shall revoke probation, shall not discharge such person, shall not dismiss the proceedings against the person, and shall deny application for expunction of all recordation of defendant's arrest, indictment, or information, trial, finding of guilty, and dismissal and discharge pursuant to G.S. 15A-145.2. A person may obtain a hearing before the court of original jurisdiction prior to revocation of probation or denial of application for expunction.

This subsection is supplemental and in addition to existing law and shall not be construed so as to repeal any existing provision contained in the General Statutes of North Carolina.

(b)        Upon the discharge of such person, and dismissal of the proceedings against the person under subsection (a) or (a1) of this section, such person, if he or she was not over 21 years of age at the time of the offense, may be eligible to apply for expunction of certain records relating to the offense pursuant to G.S. 15A-145.2(a).

(c)        Repealed by Session Laws 2009-510, s. 8(b), effective October 1, 2010.

(d)        Whenever any person is charged with a misdemeanor under this Article by possessing a controlled substance included within Schedules I through VI of this Article or a felony under G.S. 90-95(a)(3), upon dismissal by the State of the charges against such person, upon entry of a nolle prosequi, or upon a finding of not guilty or other adjudication of innocence, the person may be eligible to apply for expunction of certain records relating to the offense pursuant to G.S. 15A-145.2(b).

(e)        Whenever any person who has not previously been convicted of (i) any felony offense under any state or federal laws; (ii) any offense under this Article; or (iii) an offense under any statute of the United States or any state relating to controlled substances included in any schedule of this Article or to that paraphernalia included in Article 5B of Chapter 90 of the General Statutes pleads guilty to or has been found guilty of (i) a misdemeanor under this Article by possessing a controlled substance included within Schedules I through VI of this Article, or by possessing drug paraphernalia as prohibited by G.S. 90-113.22 or (ii) a felony under G.S. 90-95(a)(3), the person may be eligible to apply for cancellation of the judgment and expunction of certain records related to the offense pursuant to G.S. 15A-145.2(c).

(f)         Repealed by Session Laws 2009-577, s. 6, effective December 1, 2009, and applicable to petitions for expunctions filed on or after that date.  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 654, s. 2; c. 1066; 1977, 2nd Sess., c. 1147, s. 11B; 1979, c. 431, ss. 3, 4; c. 550; 1981, c. 922, ss. 1-4; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 11, s. 1.1; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a); 2002-126, s. 29A.5(d); 2009-510, s. 8(a)-(d); 2009-577, s. 6; 2010-174, ss. 10-12; 2011-192, s. 5(a); 2013-210, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-96.01.  Drug education schools; responsibilities of the Department of Health and Human Services; fees.

(a)        The Commission for Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities, and Substance Abuse Services shall establish standards and guidelines for the curriculum and operation of local drug education programs. The Department of Health and Human Services shall oversee the development of a statewide system of schools and shall insure that schools are available in all localities of the State as soon as is practicable.

(1)        A fee of one hundred fifty dollars ($150.00) shall be paid by all persons enrolling in an accredited drug education school established pursuant to this section. That fee must be paid to an official designated for that purpose and at a time and place specified by the area mental health, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse authority providing the course of instruction in which the person is enrolled. If the clerk of court in the county in which the person is convicted agrees to collect the fees, the clerk shall collect all fees for persons convicted in that county. The clerk shall pay the fees collected to the area mental health, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse authority for the catchment area where the clerk is located regardless of the location where the defendant attends the drug education school and that authority shall distribute the funds in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Department. The fee must be paid in full within two weeks of the date the person is convicted and before he attends any classes, unless the court, upon a showing of reasonable hardship, allows the person additional time to pay the fee or allows him to begin the course of instruction without paying the fee. If the person enrolling in the school demonstrates to the satisfaction of the court that ordered him to enroll in the school that he is unable to pay and his inability to pay is not willful, the court may excuse him from paying the fee. Parents or guardians of persons attending drug education school shall be allowed to audit the drug education school along with their children or wards at no extra expense.

(2)        The Department of Health and Human Services shall have the authority to approve programs to be implemented by area mental health, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse authorities. Area mental health, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse authorities may subcontract for the delivery of drug education program services. The Department shall have the authority to approve budgets and contracts with public and private governmental and nongovernmental bodies for the operation of such schools.

(3)        Fees collected under this section and retained by the area mental health, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse authority shall be placed in a nonreverting fund. That fund must be used, as necessary, for the operation, evaluation and administration of the drug educational schools; excess funds may only be used to fund other drug or alcohol programs. The area mental health, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse authority shall remit five percent (5%) of each fee collected to the Department of Health and Human Services on a monthly basis. Fees received by the Department as required by this section may only be used in supporting, evaluating, and administering drug education schools, and any excess funds will revert to the General Fund.

(4)        All fees collected by any area mental health, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse authority under the authority of this section may not be used in any manner to match other State funds or be included in any computation for State formula-funded allocations.

(b)        Willful failure to pay the fee is one ground for a finding that a person placed on probation or who may make application for expunction of all recordation of his arrest or conviction has not successfully completed the course. If the court determines the person is unable to pay, he shall not be deemed guilty of a willful failure to pay the fee. (1981, c. 922, s. 8; 1991, c. 636, s. 19(b), (c); 1993, c. 395, s. 1; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a).)

 

§ 90-96.1.  Immunity from prosecution for minors.

Whenever any person who is not more than 18 years of age, who has not previously been convicted of any offense under this Article or under any statute of the United States of any state relating to controlled substances included in any schedule of this Article, is accused with possessing or distributing a controlled substance in violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(1) or 90-95(a)(2) or 90-95(a)(3), the court may, upon recommendation of the district attorney, grant said person immunity from prosecution for said violation(s) if said person shall disclose the identity of the person or persons from whom he obtained the controlled substance(s) for which said person is being accused of possessing or distributing. (1973, c. 47, s. 2; c. 654, s. 3.)

 

§ 90-96.2.  Drug-related overdose treatment; limited immunity.

(a)        As used in this section, "drug-related overdose" means an acute condition, including mania, hysteria, extreme physical illness, coma, or death resulting from the consumption or use of a controlled substance, or another substance with which a controlled substance was combined, and that a layperson would reasonably believe to be a drug overdose that requires medical assistance.

(b)        A person acting in good faith who seeks medical assistance for an individual experiencing a drug-related overdose shall not be prosecuted for (i) a misdemeanor violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(3), (ii) a felony violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(3) for possession of less than one gram of cocaine, (iii) a felony violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(3) for possession of less than one gram of heroin, or (iv) a violation of G.S. 90-113.22 if the evidence for prosecution under those sections was obtained as a result of the person seeking medical assistance for the drug-related overdose.

(c)        A person who experiences a drug-related overdose and is in need of medical assistance shall not be prosecuted for (i) a misdemeanor violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(3), (ii) a felony violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(3) for possession of less than one gram of cocaine, (iii) a felony violation of G.S. 90-95(a)(3) for possession of less than one gram of heroin, or (iv) a violation of G.S. 90-113.22 if the evidence for prosecution under those sections was obtained as a result of the drug-related overdose and need for medical assistance.

(d)        Nothing in this section shall be construed to bar the admissibility of any evidence obtained in connection with the investigation and prosecution of other crimes committed by a person who otherwise qualifies for limited immunity under this section.  (2013-23, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-97.  Other penalties.

Any penalty imposed for violation of this Article shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, any civil or administrative penalty or sanction authorized by law. If a violation of this Article is a violation of a federal law or the law of another state, a conviction or acquittal under federal law or the law of another state for the same act is a bar to prosecution in this State. (1971, c. 919, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-98.  Attempt and conspiracy; penalties.

Except as otherwise provided in this Article, any person who attempts or conspires to commit any offense defined in this Article is guilty of an offense that is the same class as the offense which was the object of the attempt or conspiracy and is punishable as specified for that class of offense and prior record or conviction level in Article 81B of Chapter 15A of the General Statutes. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1979, c. 760, s. 5; 1997-80, s. 9.)

 

§ 90-99.  Republishing of schedules.

The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services shall update and republish the schedules established by this Article on a semiannual basis for two years from January 1, 1972, and thereafter on an annual basis. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a).)

 

§ 90-100.  Rules.

The Commission may adopt rules relating to the registration and control of the manufacture, distribution, security, and dispensing of controlled substances within this State. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1991, c. 309, s. 2; 1993, c. 384, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-101.  Annual registration and fee to engage in listed activities with controlled substances; effect of registration; exceptions; waiver; inspection.

(a)        Every person who manufactures, distributes, dispenses, or conducts research with any controlled substance within this State or who proposes to engage in any of these activities shall annually register with the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, in accordance with rules adopted by the Commission, and shall pay the registration fee set by the Commission for the category to which the applicant belongs. An applicant for registration shall file an application for registration with the Department of Health and Human Services and submit the required fee with the application. The categories of applicants and the maximum fee for each category are as follows:

CATEGORY......................................................................... MAXIMUM FEE

Clinic.............................................................................................. $150.00

Animal Shelter................................................................................... 150.00

Hospital............................................................................................ 350.00

Nursing Home .................................................................................. 150.00

Teaching Institution............................................................................ 150.00

Researcher........................................................................................ 150.00

Analytical Laboratory........................................................................ 150.00

Dog Handler..................................................................................... 150.00

Distributor......................................................................................... 600.00

Manufacturer..................................................................................... 700.00

(a1)      Any physician who prescribes or dispenses Buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate dependence shall annually register with the Department, in accordance with rules adopted by the Commission. In the application for registration under this subsection, the applicant shall document plans to ensure that patients are directly engaged or referred to a qualified provider to receive counseling and case management, as appropriate, and shall acknowledge the application of federal confidentiality regulations to patient information. Applicant plans for referral to appropriate services shall be a written document and may include either an executed memorandum of agreement, contractual arrangement, or linkage agreement with qualified providers. The Department shall provide assistance upon request to physicians registered under this subsection to identify and establish linkages with qualified providers of counseling and case management. The Department shall provide the North Carolina Medical Board with any evidence of noncompliance with this subsection by a qualified physician prior to taking action to rescind the physician's registration to prescribe or dispense Buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate dependency.

(a2)      An animal shelter may register under this section for the limited purpose of obtaining, possessing, and using sodium pentobarbital and other drugs approved by the Department in consultation with the North Carolina Veterinary Medical Association for the euthanasia of animals lawfully held by the animal shelter. An animal shelter registered under this section shall also register with the federal Drug Enforcement Agency under the federal Controlled Substances Act. An animal shelter's acquisition of sodium pentobarbital and other approved drugs for use in the euthanizing of animals shall be made only by the shelter's manager or chief operating officer or by a licensed veterinarian.

A person certified by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services to administer euthanasia by injection is authorized to possess and administer sodium pentobarbital and other approved euthanasia drugs for the purposes of euthanizing domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis domestica) lawfully held by an animal shelter. Possession and administration of sodium pentobarbital and other approved drugs for use in the euthanizing of dogs and cats by a certified euthanasia technician shall be limited to the premises of the animal shelter.

For purposes of this section, "animal shelter" means an animal shelter registered under Article 3 of Chapter 19A of the General Statutes and owned, operated, or maintained by a unit of local government or under contract with a unit of local government for the purpose of housing or containing seized, stray, homeless, quarantined, abandoned, or unwanted animals.

(b)        Persons registered by the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services under this Article (including research facilities) to manufacture, distribute, dispense or conduct research with controlled substances may possess, manufacture, distribute, dispense or conduct research with those substances to the extent authorized by their registration and in conformity with the other provisions of this Article.

(c)        The following persons shall not be required to register and may lawfully possess controlled substances under the provisions of this Article:

(1)        An agent, or an employee thereof, of any registered manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser of any controlled substance if such agent is acting in the usual course of his business or employment;

(2)        The State courier service operated by the Department of Administration, a common or contract carrier, or a public warehouseman, or an employee thereof, whose possession of any controlled substance is in the usual course of his business or employment;

(3)        An ultimate user or a person in possession of any controlled substance pursuant to a lawful order of a practitioner;

(4)        Repealed by Session Laws 1977, c. 891, s. 4.

(5)        Any law-enforcement officer acting within the course and scope of official duties, or any person employed in an official capacity by, or acting as an agent of, any law-enforcement agency or other agency charged with enforcing the provisions of this Article when acting within the course and scope of official duties; and

(6)        A practitioner, as defined in G.S. 90-87(22)a., who is required to be licensed in North Carolina by his respective licensing board.

(d)        The Commission may, by rule, waive the requirement for registration of certain classes of manufacturers, distributors, or dispensers if it finds it consistent with the public health and safety.

(e)        A separate registration shall be required at each principal place of business, research or professional practice where the registrant manufactures, distributes, dispenses or uses controlled substances.

(f)         The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services is authorized to inspect the establishment of a registrant, applicant for registration, or practitioner in accordance with rules adopted by the Commission.

(g)        Practitioners licensed in North Carolina by their respective licensing boards may possess, dispense or administer controlled substances to the extent authorized by law and by their boards.

(h)        A physician licensed by the North Carolina Medical Board pursuant to Article 1 of this Chapter may possess, dispense or administer tetrahydrocannabinols in duly constituted pharmaceutical form for human administration for treatment purposes pursuant to rules adopted by the Commission.

(i)         A physician licensed by the North Carolina Medical Board pursuant to Article 1 of this Chapter may dispense or administer Dronabinol or Nabilone as scheduled in G.S. 90-90(5) only as an antiemetic agent in cancer chemotherapy.  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 1358, s. 12; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; c. 891, s. 4; 1979, c. 781; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1983, c. 375, s. 2; 1985, c. 439, s. 2; 1987, c. 412, s. 13; 1989 (Reg. Sess., 1990), c. 1040, s. 4; 1993, c. 384, s. 2; 1995, c. 94, ss. 26, 27; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a); 1997-456, s. 27; 2003-335, s. 1; 2003-398, s. 1; 2010-127, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-102.  Additional provisions as to registration.

(a)        The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services shall register an applicant to manufacture or distribute controlled substances included in Schedules I through VI of this Article unless it determines that the issuance of such registration is inconsistent with the public interest. In determining the public interest, the following factors shall be considered:

(1)        Maintenance of effective controls against diversion of any controlled substances and any substance compounded therefrom into other than legitimate medical, scientific, or industrial channels;

(2)        Compliance with applicable federal, State and local law;

(3)        Prior conviction record of applicant, its agents or employees under federal and State laws relating to the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of such substances;

(4)        Past experience in the manufacture of controlled substances, and the existence in the establishment or facility of effective controls against diversion; and

(5)        Any factor relating to revocation, suspension, or denial of past registrations, licenses, or applications under this or any other State or federal law;

(6)        Such other factors as may be relevant to and consistent with the public health and safety.

(b)        Registration granted under subsection (a) of this section shall not entitle a registrant to manufacture and distribute controlled substances included in Schedule I or II other than those specified in the registration.

(c)        Individual practitioners licensed to dispense and authorized to conduct research under federal law with Schedules II through V substances must be registered with the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services to conduct such research.

(d)        Manufacturers and distributors registered or licensed under federal law to manufacture or distribute controlled substances included in Schedules I through VI of this Article are entitled to registration under this Article, but this registration is expressly made subject to the provisions of G.S. 90-103.

(e)        The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services shall initially permit persons to register who own or operate any establishment engaged in the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of any substances prior to January 1, 1972, and who are registered or licensed by the State. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 1358, s. 14; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1985, c. 439, ss. 3, 4; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a).)

 

§ 90-102.1.  Registration of persons requiring limited use of controlled substances for training purposes in certain businesses.

(a)        Definitions. - As used in this Article:

(1)        "Commercial detection service" means any person, firm, association, or corporation contracting with another person, firm, association, or corporation for a fee or other valuable consideration to place, lease, or rent a trained drug detection dog with a dog handler.

(2)        "Dog handler" means a person trained in the handling of drug detection dogs, including the care, feeding, and maintenance of drug detection dogs and the procedures necessary to train and control the behavior of drug detection dogs.

(3)        "Drug detection dog" means a dog trained to locate controlled substances by scent.

(b)        Registration. - A dog handler who is not exempt from registration under G.S. 90-101 who intends to use any controlled substance included in Schedules I through VI for the limited purpose of the initial training and maintenance training of drug detection dogs shall file an application for registration with the Department of Health and Human Services and pay the applicable fee as provided in G.S. 90-101.

(c)        Prerequisites for Registration. - Upon receipt of an application, the Department of Health and Human Services shall conduct a background investigation, during the course of which the applicant shall be required to show that the applicant meets all the following requirements and qualifications:

(1)        That the applicant is at least 21 years of age.

(2)        That the applicant is of good moral character and temperate habits. The following shall be prima facie evidence that the applicant does not have good moral character or temperate habits:

a.         Conviction of any crime involving the illegal use, possession, sale, manufacture, distribution, or transportation of a controlled substance, drug, narcotic, or alcoholic beverage;

b.         Conviction of a felony or a crime involving an act of violence;

c.         Conviction of a crime involving unlawful breaking or entering, burglary, larceny, or any offense involving moral turpitude; or

d.         A history of addiction to alcohol or a narcotic drug;

provided that, for purposes of this subsection, conviction means and includes the entry of a plea of guilty or no contest or a verdict rendered in open court by a judge or jury.

(3)        That the applicant has not been convicted of any felony involving the illegal use, possession, sale, manufacture, distribution, or transportation of a controlled substance, drug, narcotic, or alcoholic beverage.

(4)        That the applicant has the necessary training, qualifications, and experience to demonstrate competency and fitness as a dog handler as the Department of Health and Human Services may determine by rule for all registrations to be approved by the Department.

(5)        That the applicant affirms in writing that if the application for registration is approved, the applicant shall report all dog alerts to, or finds of, any controlled substance to a law enforcement agency having jurisdiction in the area where the dog alert occurs or where the controlled substance is found.

(d)        Criminal Record Check. - The Department of Justice may provide a criminal record check to the Department of Health and Human Services for a person who has applied for a new or renewal registration. The Department of Health and Human Services shall provide to the Department of Justice, along with the request, the fingerprints of the applicant, any additional information required by the Department of Justice, and a form signed by the applicant consenting to the check of the criminal record and to the use of the fingerprints and other identifying information required by the State or national repositories. The applicant's fingerprints shall be forwarded to the State Bureau of Investigation for a search of the State's criminal history record file, and the State Bureau of Investigation shall forward a set of the fingerprints to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for a national criminal history check. The Department of Health and Human Services shall keep all information pursuant to this subsection privileged, in accordance with applicable State law and federal guidelines, and the information shall be confidential and shall not be a public record under Chapter 132 of the General Statutes. The Department of Justice may charge each applicant a fee for conducting the checks of criminal history records authorized by this subsection.

(e)        Acquisition of Controlled Substances. - If the application for registration is approved, the registrant may lawfully obtain and possess controlled substances in the manner and to the extent authorized by the registration, in conformity with G.S. 90-105, other provisions of this Article, and rules promulgated by the Commission pursuant to G.S. 90-100.

(f)         Record Keeping; Physical Security. - Each registrant shall keep records and maintain inventories in the manner specified in G.S. 90-104. Registrants shall provide effective controls and procedures to guard against theft and diversion of controlled substances. Controlled substances shall be stored in a securely locked, substantially constructed cabinet, and the storage area shall be protected by an alarm system that is continuously monitored by an alarm company central station.

(g)        Disclosure of Discovery of Controlled Substances. - A dog handler shall, upon a dog alert or finding of a controlled substance, notify the State or local law enforcement agency having jurisdiction over the area where the dog alert occurs or the controlled substance is found. Before leaving the premises where the dog alert occurs or where the controlled substance is found, the dog handler shall inform law enforcement of the dog alert or the finding of a controlled substance and shall provide all relevant information concerning the dog alert or the discovery of the controlled substance.

(h)        Commercial Detection Services; Dog Certification and Client Confidentiality. - Any drug detection dog utilized in a commercial detection service in this State shall first be certified by a canine certification association approved by the Department of Health and Human Services. Any person, including a nonresident, engaged in providing a commercial detection service in this State shall comply with the requirements of subsection (g) of this section regarding disclosure of the discovery of controlled substances. Client records of a dog handler who provides a commercial detection service for controlled substances shall be confidential unless the dog handler is required to report a dog alert or finding of a controlled substance in the course of a search, the records are lawfully subpoenaed, or the records are obtained by a law enforcement officer pursuant to a court order, a search warrant, or an exception to the search warrant requirement.

(i)         Notice of Disclosure Requirement. - A dog handler shall provide conspicuous written notice to clients at the dog handler's place of business and in the contract for services stating that the dog handler is required by law to notify law enforcement of any dog alert or finding of a controlled substance.

Any person who contracts with a dog handler to provide commercial drug detection services shall provide conspicuous written notice to any person whose person or property may be subject to search stating that the premises is subject to search and that the dog handler is required by law to notify law enforcement of any dog alert or finding of a controlled substance.

(j)         The Department of Health and Human Services shall have the power to investigate or cause to be investigated any complaints, allegations, or suspicions of wrongdoing or violations of this section involving individuals registered or applying to be registered under this section. The Department or the Commission may deny, suspend, or revoke a registration issued under this section if it is determined that the applicant or registrant has:

(1)        Made any false statement or given any false information in connection with any application for a registration or for the renewal or reinstatement of a registration.

(2)        Violated any provision of this Article.

(3)        Violated any rule promulgated by the Department of Health and Human Services or the Commission for Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities, and Substance Abuse Services pursuant to the authority contained in this Article.

(k)        This section does not apply to law enforcement agencies, to dog handlers and drug detection dogs that are employed or under contract to law enforcement agencies, or to other persons who are exempt from registration under G.S. 90-101(c)(5). (2003-398, s. 2.)

 

§ 90-103.  Revocation or suspension of registration.

(a)        A registration under G.S. 90-102 to manufacture, distribute, or dispense a controlled substance, may be suspended or revoked by the Commission upon a finding that the registrant:

(1)        Has furnished false or fraudulent material information in any application filed under this Article;

(2)        Has been convicted of a felony under any State or federal law relating to any controlled substance; or

(3)        Has had his federal registration suspended or revoked to manufacture, distribute, or dispense controlled substances.

(b)        The Commission may limit revocation or suspension of a registration to the particular controlled substance with respect to which grounds for revocation or suspension exist.

(c)        Before denying, suspending, or revoking a registration or refusing a renewal of registration, the Commission shall serve upon the applicant or registrant an order to show cause why registration should not be denied, revoked, or suspended, or why the renewal should not be refused.  The order to show cause shall contain a statement of the basis therefor and shall call upon the applicant or registrant to appear before the Commission at a time and place not less than 30 days after the date of service of the order, but in the case of a denial or renewal of registration, the show cause order shall be served not later than 30 days before the expiration of the registration.  These proceedings shall be conducted in accordance with rules and regulations of the Commission required by Chapter 150B of the General Statutes, and subject to judicial review as provided in Chapter 150B of the General Statutes.  Such proceedings shall be independent of, and not in lieu of, criminal prosecutions or other proceedings under this Article or any law of the State.

(d)        The Commission may suspend, without an order to show cause, any registration simultaneously with the institutions of proceedings under this section, or where renewal of registration is refused if it finds that there is an imminent danger to the public health or safety which warrants this action.  The suspension shall continue in effect until the conclusion of the proceedings, including judicial review thereof, unless sooner withdrawn by the Commission or dissolved by a court of competent jurisdiction.

(e)        In the event the Commission suspends or revokes a registration granted under G.S. 90-102, all controlled substances owned or possessed by the registrant pursuant to such registration at the time of suspension or the effective date of the revocation order, as the case may be, may in the discretion of the Commission be placed under seal.  No disposition may be made of substances under seal until the time for taking an appeal has elapsed or until all appeals have been concluded unless a court, upon application therefor, orders the sale of perishable substances and the deposit of the proceeds of the sale with the court.  Upon a revocation order becoming final, all such controlled substances may be ordered forfeited to the State.

(f)         The Bureau shall promptly be notified of all orders suspending or revoking registration. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 1331, s. 3; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1987, c. 827, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-104.  Records of registrants or practitioners.

Each registrant or practitioner manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing controlled substances under this Article shall keep records and maintain inventories in conformance with the record-keeping and the inventory requirements of the federal law and shall conform to such rules and regulations as may be promulgated by the Commission. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1981, c. 51, s. 9.)

 

§ 90-105.  Order forms.

Controlled substances included in Schedules I and II of this Article shall be distributed only by a registrant or practitioner, pursuant to an order form. Compliance with the provisions of the Federal Controlled Substances Act or its successor respecting order forms shall be deemed compliance with this section. (1971, c. 919, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-106.  Prescriptions and labeling.

(a)        Except when dispensed directly by a practitioner, other than a pharmacist, to an ultimate user, no controlled substance included in Schedule II of this Article may be dispensed without the written prescription of a practitioner. No Schedule II substance shall be dispensed pursuant to a written prescription more than six months after the date it was prescribed.

(b)        In emergency situations, as defined by rule of the Commission, Schedule II drugs may be dispensed upon oral prescription of a practitioner, reduced promptly to writing and filed by the dispensing agent. Prescriptions shall be retained in conformity with the requirements of G.S. 90-104. No prescription for a Schedule II substance may be refilled.

(c)        Except when dispensed directly by a practitioner, other than a pharmacist, to an ultimate user, no controlled substance included in Schedules III or IV, except paregoric, U.S.P., as provided in G.S. 90-91(e)1, may be dispensed without a prescription, and oral prescriptions shall be promptly reduced to writing and filed with the dispensing agent. Such prescription may not be filled or refilled more than six months after the date thereof or be refilled more than five times after the date of the prescription.

(d)        No controlled substance included in Schedule V of this Article or paregoric, U.S.P., may be distributed or dispensed other than for a medical purpose.

(e)        No controlled substance included in Schedule VI of this Article may be distributed or dispensed other than for scientific or research purposes by persons registered under, or permitted by, this Article to engage in scientific or research projects.

(f)         No controlled substance shall be dispensed or distributed in this State unless such substance shall be in a container clearly labeled in accord with regulations lawfully adopted and published by the federal government or the Commission.

(g)        When a copy of a prescription for a controlled substance under this Article is given as required by G.S. 90-70, such copy shall be plainly marked: "Copy - for information only." Copies of prescriptions for controlled substances shall not be filled or refilled.

(h)        A pharmacist dispensing a controlled substance under this Article shall enter the date of dispensing on the prescription order pursuant to which such controlled substance was dispensed.

(i)         A manufacturer's sales representative may distribute a controlled substance as a complimentary sample only upon the written request of a practitioner. Such request must be made on each distribution and must contain the names and addresses of the supplier and the requester and the name and quantity of the specific controlled substance requested. The manufacturer shall maintain a record of each such request for a period of two years.  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 1358, s. 15; 1975, c. 572; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 2007-248, s. 2; 2013-379, s. 5.)

 

§ 90-106.1.  Photo ID requirement for Schedule II controlled substances.

(a)        Immediately prior to dispensing a Schedule II controlled substance, or any of the Schedule III controlled substances listed in subdivisions 1. through 8. of G.S. 90-91(d), each pharmacy holding a valid permit pursuant to G.S. 90-85.21 shall require the person seeking the dispensation to present one of the following valid, unexpired forms of government-issued photographic identification: (i) a drivers license, (ii) a special identification card issued under G.S. 20-37.7, (iii) a military identification card, or (iv) a passport. Upon presentation of the required photographic identification, the pharmacy shall document the name of the person seeking the dispensation, the type of photographic identification presented by the person seeking the dispensation, and the photographic identification number. The pharmacy shall retain this identifying information on the premises or at a central location apart from the premises as part of its business records for a period of three years following dispensation.

(b)        The pharmacy shall make the identifying information available to any person authorized under G.S. 90-113.74 to receive prescription information data in the controlled substances reporting system within 72 hours after a request for the identifying information. A pharmacy that submits the identifying information required under this section to the controlled substances reporting system established and maintained pursuant to G.S. 90-113.73 is deemed in compliance with this subsection.

(c)        Nothing in this section shall be deemed to require that the person seeking the dispensation and the person to whom the prescription is issued be the same person, and nothing in this section shall apply to the dispensation of controlled substances to employees of "health care facilities", as that term is defined in G.S. 131E-256(b), when the controlled substances are delivered to the health care facilities for the benefit of residents or patients of such health care facilities.  (2011-349, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-106.2.  Treatment of overdose with opioid antagonist; immunity.

(a)        As used in this section, "opioid antagonist" means naloxone hydrochloride that is approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of a drug overdose.

(b)        A practitioner acting in good faith and exercising reasonable care may directly or by standing order prescribe an opioid antagonist to (i) a person at risk of experiencing an opiate-related overdose or (ii) a family member, friend, or other person in a position to assist a person at risk of experiencing an opiate-related overdose. As an indicator of good faith, the practitioner, prior to prescribing an opioid under this subsection, may require receipt of a written communication that provides a factual basis for a reasonable conclusion as to either of the following:

(1)        The person seeking the opioid antagonist is at risk of experiencing an opiate-related overdose.

(2)        The person other than the person who is at risk of experiencing an opiate-related overdose, and who is seeking the opioid antagonist, is in relation to the person at risk of experiencing an opiate-related overdose:

a.         A family member, friend, or other person.

b.         In the position to assist a person at risk of experiencing an opiate-related overdose.

(c)        A person who receives an opioid antagonist that was prescribed pursuant to subsection (b) of this section may administer an opioid antagonist to another person if (i) the person has a good faith belief that the other person is experiencing a drug-related overdose and (ii) the person exercises reasonable care in administering the drug to the other person. Evidence of the use of reasonable care in administering the drug shall include the receipt of basic instruction and information on how to administer the opioid antagonist.

(d)        All of the following individuals are immune from any civil or criminal liability for actions authorized by this section:

(1)        Any practitioner who prescribes an opioid antagonist pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

(2)        Any person who administers an opioid antagonist pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.  (2013-23, s. 2.)

 

§ 90-107.  Prescriptions, stocks, etc., open to inspection by officials.

Prescriptions, order forms and records, required by this Article, and stocks of controlled substances included in Schedules I through VI of this Article shall be open for inspection only to federal and State officers, whose duty it is to enforce the laws of this State or of the United States relating to controlled substances included in Schedules I through VI of this Article, and to authorized employees of the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. No officer having knowledge by virtue of his office of any such prescription, order, or record shall divulge such knowledge other than to other law-enforcement officials or agencies, except in connection with a prosecution or proceeding in court or before a licensing board or officer to which prosecution or proceeding the person to whom such prescriptions, orders, or records relate is a party. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 1358, s. 13; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a).)

 

§ 90-108.  Prohibited acts; penalties.

(a)        It shall be unlawful for any person:

(1)        Other than practitioners licensed under Articles 1, 2, 4, 6, 11, 12A of this Chapter to represent to any registrant or practitioner who manufactures, distributes, or dispenses a controlled substance under the provision of this Article that he is a licensed practitioner in order to secure or attempt to secure any controlled substance as defined in this Article or to in any way impersonate a practitioner for the purpose of securing or attempting to secure any drug requiring a prescription from a practitioner as listed above and who is licensed by this State;

(2)        Who is subject to the requirements of G.S. 90-101 or a practitioner to distribute or dispense a controlled substance in violation of G.S. 90-105 or 90-106;

(3)        Who is a registrant to manufacture, distribute, or dispense a controlled substance not authorized by his registration to another registrant or other authorized person;

(4)        To omit, remove, alter, or obliterate a symbol required by the Federal Controlled Substances Act or its successor;

(5)        To refuse or fail to make, keep, or furnish any record, notification, order form, statement, invoice or information required under this Article;

(6)        To refuse any entry into any premises or inspection authorized by this Article;

(7)        To knowingly keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling house, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or any place whatever, which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this Article for the purpose of using such substances, or which is used for the keeping or selling of the same in violation of this Article;

(8)        Who is a registrant or a practitioner to distribute a controlled substance included in Schedule I or II of this Article in the course of his legitimate business, except pursuant to an order form as required by G.S. 90-105;

(9)        To use in the course of the manufacture or distribution of a controlled substance a registration number which is fictitious, revoked, suspended, or issued to another person;

(10)      To acquire or obtain possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception, or subterfuge;

(11)      To furnish false or fraudulent material information in, or omit any material information from, any application, report, or other document required to be kept or filed under this Article, or any record required to be kept by this Article;

(12)      To make, distribute, or possess any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as to render such drug a counterfeit controlled substance;

(13)      To obtain controlled substances through the use of legal prescriptions which have been obtained by the knowing and willful misrepresentation to or by the intentional withholding of information from one or more practitioners;

(14)      Who is an employee of a registrant or practitioner and who is authorized to possess controlled substances or has access to controlled substances by virtue of his employment, to embezzle or fraudulently or knowingly and willfully misapply or divert to his own use or other unauthorized or illegal use or to take, make away with or secrete, with intent to embezzle or fraudulently or knowingly and willfully misapply or divert to his own use or other unauthorized or illegal use any controlled substance which shall have come into his possession or under his care.

(b)        Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Provided, that if the criminal pleading alleges that the violation was committed intentionally, and upon trial it is specifically found that the violation was committed intentionally, such violations shall be a Class I felony unless one of the following applies:

(1)        A person who violates subdivision (7) of subsection (a) of this section and also fortifies the structure, with the intent to impede law enforcement entry, (by barricading windows and doors) shall be punished as a Class I felon.

(2)        A person who violates subdivision (14) of subsection (a) of this section shall be punished as a Class G felon.  (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 1358, s. 11; 1979, c. 760, ss. 5, 6; 1979, 2nd Sess., c. 1316, s. 47; 1981, c. 63, s. 1; c. 179, s. 14; 1983, c. 294, s. 7; c. 773; 1991 (Reg. Sess., 1992), c. 1041, s. 1; 1993, c. 539, s. 622; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c); 2013-90, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-109.  Licensing required.

A facility for drug treatment as defined in G.S. 122C-3(14)b. shall obtain the license required by Article 2 of Chapter 122C of the General Statutes permitting operation. Subject to rules governing the operation and licensing of these facilities set by the Commission for Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities, and Substance Abuse Services, the Department of Health and Human Services shall be responsible for issuing licenses. These licensing rules shall be consistent with the licensing rules adopted under Article 2 of Chapter 122C of the General Statutes. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 1361; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1983, c. 718, s. 2; 1985, c. 589, s. 32; 1995, c. 509, s. 39; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a).)

 

§ 90-109.1.  Treatment.

(a)        A person may request treatment and rehabilitation for drug dependence from a practitioner, and such practitioner or employees thereof shall not disclose the name of such person to any law-enforcement officer or agency; nor shall such information be admissible as evidence in any court, grand jury, or administrative proceeding unless authorized by the person seeking treatment. A practitioner may undertake the treatment and rehabilitation of such person or refer such person to another practitioner for such purpose and under the same requirement of confidentiality.

(b)        An individual who requests treatment or rehabilitation for drug dependence in a program where medical services are to be an integral component of his treatment shall be examined and evaluated by a practitioner before receiving treatment and rehabilitation services. If a practitioner performs an initial examination and evaluation, the practitioner shall prescribe a proper course of treatment and medication, if needed. That practitioner may authorize another practitioner to provide the prescribed treatment and rehabilitation services.

(c)        Every practitioner that provides treatment or rehabilitation services to a person dependent upon drugs shall periodically as required by the Secretary of the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services commencing January 1, 1972, make a statistical report to the Secretary of the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services in such form and manner as the Secretary shall prescribe for each such person treated or to whom rehabilitation services were provided. The form of the report prescribed shall be furnished by the Secretary of the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. Such report shall include the number of persons treated or to whom rehabilitation services were provided; the county of such person's legal residence; the age of such person; the number of such persons treated as inpatients and the number treated as outpatients; the number treated who had received previous treatment or rehabilitation services; and any other data required by the Secretary. If treatment or rehabilitation services are provided to a person by a hospital, public agency, or drug treatment facility, such hospital, public agency, or drug treatment facility shall coordinate with the treating medical practitioner so that statistical reports required in this section shall not duplicate one another. The Secretary shall cause all such reports to be compiled into periodical reports which shall be a public record. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1985, c. 439, s. 5; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a).)

 

§ 90-110.  Injunctions.

(a)        The superior court of North Carolina shall have jurisdiction in proceedings in accordance with the rules of those courts to enjoin violations of this Article.

(b)        In case of an alleged violation of an injunction or restraining order issued under this section, trial shall, upon demand of the accused, be by a jury in accordance with the rules of the superior courts of North Carolina. (1971, c. 919, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-111.  Cooperative arrangements.

The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services and the Attorney General of North Carolina shall cooperate with federal and other State agencies in discharging their responsibilities concerning traffic in controlled substances and in suppressing the abuse of controlled substances. To this end, they are authorized to:

(1)        Arrange for the exchange of information between governmental officials concerning the use and abuse of controlled substances;

(2)        Coordinate and cooperate in training programs on controlled substances for law enforcement at the local and State levels;

(3)        Cooperate with the Bureau by establishing a centralized unit which will accept, catalogue, file, and collect statistics, including records of drug-dependent persons and other controlled substance law offenders within the State, and make such information available for federal, State, and local law-enforcement purposes. Provided that neither the Attorney General of North Carolina, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services nor any other State officer or agency shall be authorized to accept or file, or give out the names or other form of personal identification of drug-dependent persons who voluntarily seek treatment or assistance related to their drug dependency. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a).)

 

§ 90-112.  Forfeitures.

(a)        The following shall be subject to forfeiture:

(1)        All controlled substances which have been manufactured, distributed, dispensed, or acquired in violation of the provisions of this Article;

(2)        All money, raw material, products, and equipment of any kind which are acquired, used, or intended for use, in selling, purchasing, manufacturing, compounding, processing, delivering, importing, or exporting a controlled substance in violation of the provisions of this Article;

(3)        All property which is used, or intended for use, as a container for property described in subdivisions (1) and (2);

(4)        All conveyances, including vehicles, vessels, or aircraft, which are used or intended for use to unlawfully conceal, convey, or transport, or in any manner to facilitate the unlawful concealment, conveyance, or transportation of property described in (1) or (2), except that

a.         No conveyance used by any person as a common carrier in the transaction of business as a common carrier shall be forfeited under the provisions of this Article unless it shall appear that the owner or other person in charge of such conveyance was a consenting party or privy to a violation of this Article;

b.         No conveyance shall be forfeited under the provisions of this section by reason of any act or omission, committed or omitted while such conveyance was unlawfully in the possession of a person other than the owner in violation of the criminal laws of the United States, or of any state;

c.         No conveyance shall be forfeited unless the violation involved is a felony under this Article;

d.         A forfeiture of a conveyance encumbered by a bona fide security interest is subject to the interest of the secured party who had no knowledge of or consented to the act or omission.

(5)        All books, records, and research, including formulas, microfilm, tapes, and data which are used, or intended for use, in violation of this Article.

(b)        Any property subject to forfeiture under this Article may be seized by any law-enforcement officer upon process issued by any district or superior court having jurisdiction over the property except that seizure without such process may be made when:

(1)        The seizure is incident to an arrest or a search under a search warrant;

(2)        The property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the State in a criminal injunction or forfeiture proceeding under this Article.

(c)        Property taken or detained under this section shall not be repleviable, but shall be deemed to be in custody of the law-enforcement agency seizing it, which may:

(1)        Place the property under seal; or,

(2)        Remove the property to a place designated by it; or,

(3)        Request that the North Carolina Department of Justice take custody of the property and remove it to an appropriate location for disposition in accordance with law.

Any property seized by a State, local, or county law enforcement officer shall be held in safekeeping as provided in this subsection until an order of disposition is properly entered by the judge.

(d)        Whenever property is forfeited under this Article, the law-enforcement agency having custody of it may:

(1)        Retain the property for official use; or

(2)        Sell any forfeited property which is not required to be destroyed by law and which is not harmful to the public, provided that the proceeds be disposed of for payment of all proper expenses of the proceedings for forfeiture and sale including expense of seizure, maintenance of custody, advertising, and court costs; or

(3)        Transfer any conveyance including vehicles, vessels, or aircraft which are forfeited under the provisions of this Article to the North Carolina Department of Justice when, in the discretion of the presiding judge and upon application of the North Carolina Department of Justice, said conveyance may be of official use to the North Carolina Department of Justice;

(4)        Upon determination by the director of any law-enforcement agency that a vehicle, vessel or aircraft transferred pursuant to the provisions of this Article is of no further use to said agency for use in official investigations, such vehicle, vessel or aircraft may be sold as surplus property in the same manner as other vehicles owned by the law-enforcement agency and the proceeds from such sale after deducting the cost of sale shall be paid to the treasurer or proper officer authorized to receive fines and forfeitures to be used for the school fund of the county in the county in which said vehicle, vessel or aircraft was seized; provided, that any vehicle transferred to any law-enforcement agency under the provisions of this Article which has been modified to increase speed shall be used in the performance of official duties only and not for resale, transfer or disposition other than as junk.

(d1)      Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d), the law-enforcement agency having custody of money that is forfeited pursuant to this section shall pay it to the treasurer or proper officer authorized to receive fines and forfeitures to be used for the school fund of the county in which the money was seized.

(e)        All substances included in Schedules I through VI that are possessed, transferred, sold, or offered for sale in violation of the provisions of this Article shall be deemed contraband and seized and summarily forfeited to the State. All substances included in Schedules I through VI of this Article which are seized or come into the possession of the State, the owners of which are unknown, shall be deemed contraband and summarily forfeited to the State according to rules and regulations of the North Carolina Department of Justice.

All species of plants from which controlled substances included in Schedules I, II and VI of this Article may be derived, which have been planted or cultivated in violation of this Article, or of which the owners or cultivators are unknown, or which are wild growths, may be seized and summarily forfeited to the State.

The failure, upon demand by the Attorney General of North Carolina, or his duly authorized agent, of the person in occupancy or in control of land or premises upon which such species of plants are growing or being stored, to produce an appropriate registration, or proof that he is the holder thereof, shall constitute authority for the seizure and forfeiture.

(f)         All other property subject to forfeiture under the provisions of this Article shall be forfeited as in the case of conveyances used to conceal, convey, or transport intoxicating beverages. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, cc. 447, 542; c. 1446, s. 6; 1983, c. 528, ss. 1-3; 1989, c. 772, s. 4.)

 

§ 90-112.1.  Remission or mitigation of forfeitures; possession pending trial.

(a)        Whenever, in any proceeding in court for a forfeiture, under G.S. 90-112 of any conveyance seized for a violation of this Article the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to continue, remit or mitigate the forfeiture.

(b)        In any such proceeding the court shall not allow the claim of any claimant for remission or mitigation unless and until he proves (i) that he has an interest in such conveyance, as owner or otherwise, which he acquired in good faith; (ii) that he had no knowledge, or reason to believe, that it was being or would be used in the violation of laws of this State relating to controlled substances; (iii) that his interest is in an amount in excess or equal to the fair market value of such conveyance.

(c)        If the court, in its discretion, allows the remission or mitigation the conveyance shall be returned to the claimant; and should there be joint request of any two or more claimants, whose claims are allowed, the court shall order the return of the conveyance to such of the joint requesting claimants as have the prior claim on lien. Such return shall be made only upon payment of all expenses incident to the seizure and forfeiture incurred by the State. In all other cases the court shall order disposition of such conveyance as provided in G.S. 90-112, and after satisfaction of the expenses of the sale, and such claims as may be approved by the court, the funds shall be paid to the treasurer or proper officer authorized to receive fines and forfeitures to be used for the school fund of the county in which said vehicle was seized.

(d)        If the court should determine that the conveyance should be held for purposes of evidence, then it may order the vehicle to be held until the case is heard. (1975, c. 601.)

 

§ 90-113.  Repealed by Session Laws 1973, c. 540, s. 7.

 

§ 90-113.1.  Burden of proof; liabilities.

(a)        It shall not be necessary for the State to negate any exemption or exception set forth in this Article in any complaint, information, indictment, or other pleading or in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding under this Article, and the burden of proof of any such exemption or exception shall be upon the person claiming its benefit.

(b)        In the absence of proof that a person is the duly authorized holder of an appropriate registration or order form issued under this  Article, he shall be presumed not to be the holder of such registration or form, and the burden of proof shall be upon him to rebut such presumption.

(c)        No liability shall be imposed by virtue of this Article upon any duly authorized officer, engaged in the lawful enforcement of this Article. (1971, c. 919, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-113.2.  Judicial review.

All final determinations, findings, and conclusions of the Commission under this Article shall be final and conclusive decisions of the matters involved, except that any person aggrieved by such decision may obtain review of the decision as provided in Chapter 150B of the General Statutes.  Findings of fact by the Commission, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; c. 1331, s. 3; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; c. 891, s. 5; 1981, c. 51, s. 9; 1987, c. 827, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-113.3.  Education and research.

(a)        The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction and the Board of Governors of the University of North Carolina are authorized and directed to carry out educational programs designed to prevent and deter misuse and abuse of controlled substances. In connection with such programs, they are authorized to:

(1)        Promote better recognition of the problems of misuse and abuse of controlled substances within the regulated industry and among interested groups and organizations;

(2)        Assist the regulated industry and interested groups and organizations in contributing to the reduction of misuse and abuse of controlled substances; and

(3)        Disseminate the results of research on misuse and abuse of controlled substances to promote a better public understanding of what problems exist and what can be done to combat them.

(b)        The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction and the Board of Governors of the University of North Carolina or either of them may enter into contracts for educational activities related to controlled substances.

(c)        The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services is authorized and directed to encourage research on misuse and abuse of controlled substances. In connection with such research and in furtherance of the enforcement of this Article, it is authorized to:

(1)        Establish methods to assess accurately the effects of controlled substances and to identify and characterize controlled substances with potential for abuse;

(2)        Make studies and undertake programs of research to:

a.         Develop new or improved approaches, techniques, systems, equipment, and devices to strengthen the enforcement of this Article;

b.         Determine patterns of misuse and abuse of controlled substances and the social effect thereof; and

c.         Improve methods for preventing, predicting, understanding, and dealing with the misuse and abuse of controlled substances.

(3)        Enter into contracts with other public agencies, any district attorney, institutions of higher education, and private organizations or individuals for the purpose of conducting research, demonstrations, or special projects which bear directly on misuse and abuse of controlled substances.

(d)        The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services may enter into contracts for research activities related to controlled substances, and the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction and the Board of Governors of the University of North Carolina or either of them may enter into contracts for educational activities related to controlled substances, without performance bonds.

(e)        The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services may authorize persons engaged in research on the use and effects of controlled substances to withhold the names and other identifying characteristics of persons who are the subjects of such research. Persons who obtain this authorization may not be compelled in any State civil, criminal, administrative, legislative, or other proceeding to identify the subjects of research for which such authorization was obtained.

(f)         The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services may authorize persons engaged in research to possess and distribute controlled substances in accordance with such restrictions as the authorization may impose. Persons who obtain this authorization shall be exempt from State prosecution for possession and distribution of controlled substances to the extent authorized by the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. (1971, c. 919, s. 1; c. 1244, s. 14; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; 1977, c. 667, s. 3; 1981, c. 218; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a).)

 

§ 90-113.4.  Repealed by Session Laws 1981, c. 500, s. 2, effective October 1, 1981.

 

§ 90-113.4A:  Repealed by Session Laws 1989, c.  784, s. 4.

 

§ 90-113.5.  State Board of Pharmacy, North Carolina Department of Justice and peace officers to enforce Article.

It is hereby made the duty of the State Board of Pharmacy, its officers, agents, inspectors, and representatives, and all peace officers within the State, including agents of the North Carolina Department of Justice, and all State's attorneys, to enforce all provisions of this Article, except those specifically delegated, and to cooperate with all agencies charged with the enforcement of the laws of the United States, of this State, and of all other states, relating to controlled substances. The North Carolina Department of Justice is hereby authorized to make initial investigation of all violations of this Article, and is given original but not exclusive jurisdiction in respect thereto with all other law-enforcement officers of the State. (1971, c. 919, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-113.6.  Payments and advances.

(a)        The Attorney General is authorized to pay any person, from funds appropriated for the North Carolina Department of Justice,  for information concerning a violation of this Article, such sum or sums of money as he may find appropriate, without reference to any rewards to which such persons may otherwise be entitled by law.

(b)        Moneys expended from appropriations of the North Carolina Department of Justice for the purchase of controlled substances or other substances proscribed by this Article which is subsequently recovered shall be reimbursed to the current appropriation for the Department.

(c)        The Attorney General is authorized to direct the advance of funds by the State Treasurer in connection with the enforcement of this Article. (1971, c. 919, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-113.7.  Pending proceedings.

(a)        Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring prior to January 1, 1972, shall not be affected by these repealers, or amendments, or abated by reason, thereof.

(b)        Civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to January 1, 1972, shall not be affected by these repealers, or amendments, or abated by reason, thereof.

(c)        All administrative proceedings pending on January 1, 1972, shall be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to January 1, 1972. Such drugs placed under control prior to January 1, 1972, which are not included within Schedules I through VI of this Article shall automatically be controlled and listed in the appropriate schedule.

(d)        The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to violations of law, seizures and forfeiture, injunctive proceedings, administrative proceedings, and investigations which occur following January 1, 1972. (1971, c. 919, s. 1.)

 

§ 90-113.8.  Continuation of regulations.

Any orders, rules, and regulations which have been promulgated under any law affected by this act [c. 919 of the 1971 Session Laws] and which are in effect on the day preceding January 1, 1972, shall continue in effect until modified, superseded, or repealed by proper authority. (1971, c. 919, s. 2.)