Chapter 47.

Probate and Registration.

Article 1.

Probate.

§ 47-1.  Officials of State authorized to take probate.

The execution of all deeds of conveyance, contracts to buy, sell or convey lands, mortgages, deeds of trust, instruments modifying or extending the terms of mortgages or deeds of trust, assignments, powers of attorney, covenants to stand seized to the use of another, leases for more than three years, releases, affidavits concerning land titles or family history, any instruments pertaining to real property, and any and all instruments and writings of whatever nature and kind which are required or allowed by law to be registered in the office of the register of deeds or which may hereafter be required or allowed by law to be so registered, may be proved or acknowledged before any one of the following officials of this State: The justices, judges, magistrates, clerks, assistant clerks, and deputy clerks of the General Court of Justice, and notaries public. (Code, s. 1246; 1895, c. 161, ss. 1, 3; 1897, c. 87; 1899, c. 235; Rev., s. 989; C.S., s. 3293; 1951, c. 772; 1969, c. 44, s. 52; 1971, c. 1185, s. 9.)

 

§ 47-2.  Officials of the United States, foreign countries, and sister states.

The execution of all such instruments and writings as are permitted or required by law to be registered may be proved or acknowledged before any one of the following officials of the United States, of the District of Columbia, of the several states and territories of the United States, of countries under the dominion of the United States and of foreign countries: Any judge of a court of record, any clerk of a court of record, any notary public, any commissioner of deeds, any commissioner of oaths, any mayor or chief magistrate of an incorporated town or city, any ambassador, minister, consul, vice-consul, consul general, vice-consul general, associate consul, or any other person authorized by federal law to acknowledge documents as consular officers, or commercial agent of the United States, any justice of the peace of any state or territory of the United States, any officer of the United States Army or Air Force or United States Marine Corps having the rank of warrant officer or higher, any officer of the United States Navy or Coast Guard having the rank of warrant officer, or higher, or any officer of the United States Merchant Marine having the rank of warrant officer, or higher. No official seal shall be required of a military or merchant marine officer, but the officer shall sign the officer's name, designate the officer's rank, and give the name of the officer's ship or military organization and the date, and for the purpose of certifying the acknowledgment, the officer shall use a form in substance as follows:

On this the ____ day of ____, ____, before me ____, the undersigned officer, personally appeared ________, known to me (or satisfactorily proven) to be accompanying or serving in or with the Armed Forces of the United States (or to be the spouse of a person accompanying or serving in or with the Armed Forces of the United States) and to be the person whose name is subscribed to the within instruments and acknowledged that ____ the person ____ executed the same for the purposes therein contained. And the undersigned does further certify that the undersigned is at the date of this certificate a commissioned officer of the rank stated below and is in the active service of the Armed Forces of the United States.

                                                                   

Signature of Officer

 

                                                                                      

Rank of Officer and command to which attached.

If the proof or acknowledgment of the execution of an instrument is had before a justice of the peace of any state of the United States other than this State or of any territory of the United States, the certificate of the justice of the peace shall be accompanied by a certificate of the clerk of some court of record of the county in which the justice of the peace resides, which certificate of the clerk shall be under the clerk's hand and official seal, to the effect that the justice of the peace was at the time the certificate of the justice bears date an acting justice of the peace of the county and state or territory and that the genuine signature of the justice of the peace is set to the certificate.  (1899, c. 235, s. 5; 1905, c. 451; Rev., s. 990; 1913, c. 39, s. 1; Ex. Sess. 1913, c. 72, s. 1; C.S., s. 3294; 1943, c. 159, s. 1; c. 471, s. 1; 1945, c. 6, s. 1; 1955, c. 658, s. 1; 1957, c. 1084, s. 1; 1967, c. 949; 1999-456, s. 59; 2004-199, s. 16; 2011-183, s. 30.)

 

§ 47-2.1.  Validation of instruments proved before officers of certain ranks.

Any instrument or writing, required by law to be proved or acknowledged before an officer, which prior to the ratification of this section was proved or acknowledged before an officer of the United States Army or Marine Corps having the rank of second lieutenant or higher, or any officer of the United States Navy, or United States Coast Guard, or United States Merchant Marine, having the rank of ensign or higher, is hereby validated and declared sufficient for all purposes.  (1945, c. 6, s. 2; 2011-183, s. 31.)

 

§ 47-2.2.  Notary public of sister state; lack of seal or stamp or expiration date of commission.

(a)        If the proof or acknowledgment of any instrument is had before a notary public of any state other than North Carolina and the instrument does not (i) show the seal or stamp of the notary public, (ii) provide evidence pursuant to subsection (b) of this section that a seal or stamp is not required and the expiration date of the commission of the notary public, or (iii) state that the notary's commission does not expire or is a lifetime appointment, the certificate of proof or acknowledgment made by such notary public shall be accompanied by the certificate of the county official before whom the notary qualifies for office or of a state officer authorized to issue certificates regarding notary commission status, stating that such notary public was at the time his certificate bears date an acting notary public of such state, and that such notary's genuine signature is set to his certificate. The certificate of the official herein provided for shall be under his hand and official seal.

(b)        A proof or acknowledgement which does not require a seal or stamp of the notary to be effective in the jurisdiction issuing the notary's commission shall include either (i) a statement by the notary within the proof or acknowledgement area of the instrument that the notary is not required to utilize a seal or stamp or (ii) a reference that purports to be the statute of the commissioning state which provides that no seal or stamp is required together with a statement that the notary is not required to utilize a seal or stamp. The register of deeds may rely upon this statement and is not responsible for confirming its validity or the authority of the person making it. A register of deeds may not refuse to accept a record for registration because a notarial seal or stamp is omitted from the proof or acknowledgement if the provisions of this subsection have been complied with in the proof or acknowledgement. The acceptance of a record for registration under this subsection shall give rise to a presumption that the seal or stamp was not required to be affixed by the notary. This presumption is rebuttable and shall apply to all instruments whenever recorded. However, a court order finding the lack of a valid seal shall not affect the rights of a person who (i) records an interest in the real property described in the instrument before the finding of a lack of a valid seal and (ii) would otherwise have an enforceable interest in the real property.  (1973, c. 1016; 2013-204, s. 1.12.)

 

§ 47-3:  Repealed by Session Laws 1987, c.  620, s. 3.

 

§ 47-4.  Repealed by Session Laws 1971, c. 1185, s. 10.

 

§ 47-5.  When seal of officer necessary to probate.

When proof or acknowledgment of the execution of any instrument by any maker of such instrument, whether a person or corporation, is had before any official authorized by law to take such proof and acknowledgment, and such official has an official seal, he shall set his official seal to his certificate. If the official before whom the instrument is proved or acknowledged has no official seal he  shall certify under his hand, and his private seal shall not be essential. When the instrument is proved or acknowledged before the register of deeds of the county in which the instrument is to be registered, the official seal shall not be necessary. (1899, c. 235, s. 8; Rev., s. 993; C.S., s. 3297; 1969, c. 664, s. 3; 1977, c. 375, s. 12.)

 

§ 47-6.  Officials may act although land or maker's residence elsewhere.

The execution of all instruments required or permitted by law to be registered may be proved or acknowledged before any of the officials authorized by law to take probates, regardless of the county in this State in which the subject matter of the instrument may be situated and regardless of the domicile, residence or citizenship of the person who executes such instrument, or of the domicile, residence or citizenship of the person to whom or for whose benefit such instrument may be made. (1899, c. 235, s. 13; Rev., s. 994; C.S., s. 3298.)

 

§ 47-7: Repealed by Session Laws 1987, c.  620, s. 3.

 

§ 47-8:  Repealed by Session Laws 1991, c.  543, s. 1.

 

§ 47-8.1.  Certain documents verified by attorneys validated.

Final judgments otherwise proper, entered in actions or proceedings in which the complaints or any other documents were verified in violation of G.S. 47-8 prior to its repeal shall not be void or voidable. (1991, c. 543, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-9.  Probates before stockholders in building and loan associations.

No acknowledgment or proof of execution of any mortgage or deed of trust executed to secure the payment of any indebtedness to any building and loan association shall hereafter be held invalid by reason of the fact that the officer taking such acknowledgment or proof is a stockholder in said building and loan association. This section does not authorize any officer or director of a building and loan association to take acknowledgments or proofs. The provisions of this section shall apply to federal savings and loan associations having their principal offices in this State. Acknowledgments and proofs of execution, including private examinations of any married woman taken before March 20, 1939, by an officer who is or was a stockholder in any federal savings and loan association, are hereby validated. (1913, c. 110, ss. 1, 3; C.S., s. 3301; 1939, c. 136; 1977, c. 375, s. 12.)

 

§ 47-10.  Probate before stockholders or directors in banking corporations.

No acknowledgment or proof of execution, including privy examination of married women, of any mortgage, or deed of trust executed to secure the payment of any indebtedness to any banking corporation, taken prior to the first day of January, 1929, shall be held invalid by reason of the fact that the officer taking such acknowledgment, proof or privy examination, was a stockholder or director in such banking corporation. (1929, c. 302, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-11.  Subpoenas to maker and subscribing witnesses.

The grantee or other party to an instrument required or allowed by law to be registered may at his own expense obtain from the clerk of the superior court of the county in which the instrument is required to be registered a subpoena for any or all of the makers of or subscribing witnesses to such instrument, commanding such maker or subscribing witness to appear before such clerk at his office at a certain time to give evidence concerning the execution of the instrument. The subpoena shall be directed to the sheriff of the county in which the person upon whom it is to be served resides. If any person refuses to obey such subpoena he is liable to a fine of forty dollars ($40.00) or to be attached for contempt by the clerk, upon its being made to appear to the satisfaction of the clerk that such disobedience was intentional, under the same rules of law as are  prescribed in the cases of other defaulting witnesses. (Code, s. 1268; 1897, c. 28; 1899, c. 235, s. 16; Rev., s. 996; C.S., s. 3302.)

 

§ 47-12.  Proof of attested instrument by subscribing witness.

Except as provided by G.S. 47-12.2, the execution of any instrument required or permitted by law to be registered, which has been witnessed by one or more subscribing witnesses, may be proved for registration before any official authorized by law to take proof of such an instrument, by a statement under oath of any such subscribing witness that the maker either signed the instrument in his presence or acknowledged to him the execution thereof. Nothing in this section in anywise affects any of the requirements set out in G.S. 52-10 or 52-10.1. (1899, c. 235, s. 12; Rev., s. 997; C.S., s. 3303; 1935, c. 168; 1937, c. 7; 1945, c. 73, s. 11; 1947, c. 991, s. 1; 1949, c. 815, ss. 1, 2; 1951, c. 379, s. 1; 1953, c. 1078, s. 1; 1977, c. 375, s. 12.)

 

§ 47-12.1.  Proof of attested instrument by proof of handwriting.

(a)        If all subscribing witnesses have died or have left the State or have become of unsound mind or otherwise incompetent or unavailable, the execution of such instrument, except as provided by G.S. 47-12.2, may be proved for registration, before any official authorized by law to take proof of such an instrument, by a statement under oath that the affiant knows the handwriting of the maker and that the purported signature of the maker is in the handwriting of the maker, or by a statement under oath that the affiant knows the handwriting of a particular subscribing witness and that the purported signature of such subscribing witness is in the handwriting of such subscribing witness.

(b)        Nothing in this section in anywise affects any of the requirements set out in G.S. 52-10 or 52-10.1. (1899, c. 235, s. 12; Rev., s. 997; C.S., s. 3303; 1935, c. 168; 1937, c. 7; 1945, c. 73, s. 11; 1947, c. 991, s. 1; 1949, c. 815, ss. 1, 2; 1951, c. 379, s. 1; 1977, c. 375, s. 12.)

 

§ 47-12.2.  Subscribing witness incompetent when grantee or beneficiary.

The execution of an instrument may not be proved for registration by a subscribing witness who, at the time of the execution of the instrument by the subscribing witness, is the grantee or beneficiary therein nor by proof of his signature as such subscribing witness. Nothing in this section invalidates the registration of any instrument registered prior to April 9, 1935.  (1899, c. 235, s. 12; Rev., s. 997; C.S., s. 3303; 1935, c. 168; 1937, c. 7; 1945, c. 73, s. 11; 1947, c. 991, s. 1; 1949, c. 815, ss. 1, 2; 1951, c. 379, s. 1; 2013-204, s. 1.13.)

 

§ 47-13.  Proof of unattested writing.

If an instrument required or permitted by law to be registered has no subscribing witness, the execution of the same may be proven before any official authorized to take the proof and acknowledgment of such instrument by proof of the handwriting of the maker and this shall likewise apply to proof of execution of instruments by married persons. (1899, c. 235, s. 11; Rev., s. 998; C.S., s. 3304; 1945, c. 73, s. 12; 1977, c. 375, s. 12.)

 

§ 47-13.1.  Certificate of officer taking proof of instrument.

The person taking proof of an instrument pursuant to G.S. 47-12, 47-12.1 or 47-13 shall execute a certificate on or attached to the instrument being proved, certifying to the fact of proof substantially as provided in the certificate forms set out in G.S. 47-43.2, 47-43.3 and 47-43.4, and such certificate shall be prima facie evidence of the facts therein certified. (1951, c. 379, s. 2; 1953, c. 1078, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-14.  Register of deeds to verify the presence of proof or acknowledgement and register instruments and electronic documents; order by judge; instruments to which register of deeds is a party.

(a)        Verification of Instruments. - The register of deeds shall not accept for registration any instrument that requires proof or acknowledgement unless the execution of the instrument by one or more signers appears to have been proved or acknowledged before an officer with the apparent authority to take proofs or acknowledgements, and the proof or acknowledgement includes the officer's signature, commission expiration date, and official seal, if required. The register of deeds shall accept an instrument for registration that does not require proof or acknowledgement if the instrument otherwise satisfies the requirements of G.S. 161-14. Any instrument previously recorded or any certified copy of any instrument previously recorded may be rerecorded provided the instrument is conspicuously marked on the first page as a rerecording. The register of deeds may rely on the marking and the appearance of the original recording office's recording information to determine that an instrument is being presented as it was previously recorded. The register of deeds is not required to further verify the proof or acknowledgement of or determine whether any changes or alterations have been made after the original recording to an instrument presented for rerecording. The register of deeds is not required to verify or make inquiry concerning any of the following:

(1)        The legal sufficiency of any proof or acknowledgement.

(2)        The authority of any officer who took a proof or acknowledgement.

(3)        The legal sufficiency of any document presented for registration.

(a1)      Verification of Electronic Documents. - The requirements of subsection (a) of this section for verification of the execution of an instrument are satisfied with respect to an electronic document if all of the conditions in this subsection are met. For purposes of this subsection, the term "electronic document" is as defined in G.S. 47-16.2(3). The conditions are:

(1)        The register of deeds has authorized the submitter to electronically register the electronic document.

(2)        The document is submitted by a United States federal or state governmental unit or instrumentality or a trusted submitter. For purposes of this subsection, "a trusted submitter" means a person or entity that has entered into a memorandum of understanding regarding electronic recording with the register of deeds in the county in which the electronic document is to be submitted.

(3)        The execution of the instrument by one or more signers appears to have been proved or acknowledged before an officer with the apparent authority to take proofs or acknowledgements, and the proof or acknowledgment includes the officer's signature, commission expiration date, and official seal, if required, based on the appearance of these elements on the digitized image of the document as it will appear on the public record.

(4)        Evidence of other required governmental certification or annotation appears on the digitized image of the document as it will appear on the public record.

(5)        With respect to a document submitted by a trusted submitter, the digitized image of the document as it will appear on the public record contains the submitter's name in the following completed statement on the first page of the document image: "Submitted electronically by ___ (submitter's name) in compliance with North Carolina statutes governing recordable documents and the terms of the submitter agreement with the ___ (insert county name) County Register of Deeds."

(6)        Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the digitized image of the electronic document conforms to all other applicable laws and rules that prescribe recordation.

(a2)      Verification of Officer's Signature. - Submission to a register of deeds of an electronic document requiring proof or acknowledgement is a representation by the submitter that, prior to submission, the submitter verified the officer's signature required under subdivision (a1)(3) of this section to be one of the types of signatures listed in this subsection. The register of deeds may rely on this representation for purposes of determining compliance with the signature requirements of this section. The electronic registration of a document with a register of deeds prior to the effective date of this statute is not invalid based on whether the register verified the officer's signature in accordance with this subsection. The types of signatures are:

(1)        A signature in ink by hand.

(2)        An electronic signature as defined in G.S. 10B-101(7).

(b)        Order by Judge. - If a register of deeds denies registration pursuant to subsection (a), the person offering the instrument for registration may apply to any judge of the district court in the district, including the county in which the instrument is to be registered, for an order for registration. Upon finding all of the requirements in this subsection, the judge shall order the instrument to be registered, together with the certificates, and the register of deeds shall register them accordingly. The requirements are:

(1)        If the instrument requires proof or acknowledgement, that the signature of one or more signers has been proved or acknowledged before an officer authorized to take proofs and acknowledgements.

(2)        That the proof or acknowledgement includes the officer's signature and commission expiration date and official seal, if required.

(c)        Repealed by Session Laws 2008-194, s. 7(a), effective October 1, 2008.

(d)       Scope. - Registration of an instrument pursuant to this section is not effective with regard to parties who have not executed the instrument or whose execution thereof has not been duly proved or acknowledged.

(e)        Register of Deeds as Party. - Any instrument required or permitted by law to be registered in which the register of deeds of the county of registration is a party may be proved or acknowledged before any magistrate or any notary public.

(f)        Presumption of Notarial Seal. - The acceptance of a record for registration by the register of deeds shall give rise to a presumption that, at the time the record was presented for registration, a clear and legible image of the notary's official seal was affixed or embossed on the record near the notary's official signature. This presumption applies regardless of whether the image is legible or photographically reproduced in the records maintained by the register of deeds and applies to all instruments filed in the records maintained by the register of deeds regardless of when the instrument was presented for registration. A register of deeds may not refuse to accept a record for registration because a notarial seal does not satisfy the requirements of G.S. 10B-37. The presumption under this subsection is rebuttable and shall apply to all instruments whenever recorded. However, a court order finding the lack of a valid seal shall not affect the rights of a person who (i) records an interest in the real property described in the instrument before the finding of a lack of a valid seal and (ii) would otherwise have an enforceable interest in the real property.  (1899, c. 235, s. 7; 1905, c. 414; Rev., s. 999; C.S., s. 3305; 1921, c. 91; 1939, c. 210, s. 2; 1967, c. 639, s. 1; 1969, c. 664, s. 2; 1973, c. 60; 2005-123, s. 2; 2006-59, s. 26; 2006-259, s. 52(a)-(b); 2006-264, s. 40(c); 2008-194, s. 7(a); 2012-18, s. 1.4; 2013-204, s. 1.14.)

 

§ 47-14.1.  Repeal of laws requiring private examination of married women.

All deeds, contracts, conveyances, leaseholds or other instruments executed from and after February 7, 1945, shall be valid for all purposes without the separate, privy, or private examination of married woman where she is a party to or a grantor in such deed, contract, conveyance, leasehold or other instrument, and it shall not  be necessary nor required that the separate or privy examination of such married woman be taken by the certifying officer. From and after February 7, 1945, all laws and clauses of laws contained in any section of the General Statutes requiring the privy or private examination of a married woman are hereby repealed. (1945, c. 73, s. 21; 1951, c. 893, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-15.  Repealed by Session Laws 1985, c. 589, s. 26, effective January 1, 1986.

 

§ 47-16.  Probate of corporate deeds, where corporation has ceased to exist.

It is competent for the clerk of the superior court in any county in this State, on proof before him upon the oath and examination of the subscribing witness to any contract or instrument required to be registered under the laws of this State, to adjudge and order that such contract or instrument be registered as by law provided, when such contract or instrument is signed by any corporation in its corporate name by its president, and when such corporation has been out of existence for more than 10 years when the said contract or instrument is offered for probate and registration, and when the grantee and those claiming under any such grantee have been in the uninterrupted possession of the property described in said contract or instrument since the date of its execution; and said contract or instrument so probated and registered shall be as effective to all intents and purposes as if signed, sealed, and acknowledged, or proven, as provided under the existing laws of this State. (1911, c. 44, s. 1; C.S., s. 3307.)

 

 

Article 1A.

Uniform Real Property Electronic Recording Act.

§ 47-16.1.  Short title.

This Article may be cited as the Uniform Real Property Electronic Recording Act. (2005-391, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-16.2.  Definitions.

In this Article:

(1)        "Document" means information that is:

a.         Inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form; and

b.         Eligible to be recorded in the land records maintained by the register of deeds.

(2)        "Electronic" means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.

(3)        "Electronic document" means a document that is received by the register of deeds in an electronic form.

(4)        "Electronic signature" means an electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with a document and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the document.

(5)        "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government, or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity. (2005-391, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-16.3.  Validity of electronic documents.

(a)        If a law requires, as a condition for recording, that a document be an original, be on paper or another tangible medium, or be in writing, the requirement is satisfied by an electronic document satisfying this Article.

(b)        If a law requires, as a condition for recording, that a document be signed, the requirement is satisfied by an electronic signature.

(c)        A requirement that a document or a signature associated with a document be notarized, acknowledged, verified, witnessed, or made under oath is satisfied if the electronic signature of the person authorized to notarize, acknowledge, verify, witness, or administer the oath, and all other information required to be included, is attached to or logically associated with the document or signature. A physical or electronic image of a stamp, impression, or seal need not accompany an electronic signature. Nothing in this act shall prohibit the North Carolina Board of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors from requiring that the image of a seal accompany any plat or map that is presented electronically for recording. (2005-391, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-16.4.  Recording of documents.

(a)        In this section, "paper document" means a document that is received by the register of deeds in a form that is not electronic.

(b)        A register of deeds:

(1)        Who implements any of the functions listed in this section shall do so in compliance with standards adopted by the Secretary of State.

(2)        May receive, index, store, archive, and transmit electronic documents.

(3)        May provide for access to, and for search and retrieval of, documents and information by electronic means.

(4)        Who accepts electronic documents for recording shall continue to accept paper documents as authorized by law and shall place entries for both types of documents in the same index.

(5)        May convert paper documents accepted for recording into electronic form.

(6)        May convert into electronic form information recorded before the register of deeds began to record electronic documents.

(7)        May accept electronically any fee or tax that the register of deeds is authorized to collect.

(8)        May agree with other officials of this State or a political subdivision thereof on procedures or processes to facilitate the electronic satisfaction of conditions to recording and the electronic payment of fees and taxes. (2005-391, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-16.5.  Administration and standards.

(a)        Standard-Setting Agency. - The Secretary of State shall adopt standards to implement this Article upon recommendation of the Electronic Recording Council. The Secretary of State may direct the Council to revise any portion of the recommended standards the Secretary deems inadequate or inappropriate. Technological standards and specifications adopted by the Secretary of State to implement this Article are engineering standards for the purposes of G.S. 150B-2(8a)h.

(b)        Electronic Recording Council Created. - The Electronic Recording Council is created in the Department of the Secretary of State to advise and assist the Secretary of State in the adoption of standards to implement this Article. The Council shall review the functions listed in G.S. 47-16.4 and shall formulate and recommend to the Secretary standards for recording electronic documents and implementing the other functions listed in G.S. 47-16.4. The Council shall report its findings and recommendations to the Secretary of State at least once each calendar year. The Council shall advise the Secretary of State on a continuing basis of the need to adopt, amend, revise, or repeal standards. The Council may advise the Secretary of State on any other matter the Secretary refers to the Council.

(c)        Council Membership, Terms, and Vacancies. - The Council shall consist of 13 members as follows:

(1)        Seven members appointed by the North Carolina Association of Registers of Deeds. It is the intent of the General Assembly that the North Carolina Association of Registers of Deeds shall appoint as members a representative selection of registers of deeds from large, medium, and small counties, urban and rural counties, and the different geographic areas of this State.

(2)        One member appointed by the North Carolina Bar Association.

(3)        One member appointed by the North Carolina Society of Land Surveyors.

(4)        One member appointed by the North Carolina Bankers Association.

(5)        One member appointed by the North Carolina Land Title Association.

(6)        One member appointed by the North Carolina Association of Assessing Officers.

(7)        The Secretary of Natural and Cultural Resources or the Secretary's designee.

In making appointments to the Council, each appointing authority shall select appointees with the ability and commitment to fulfill the purposes of the Council.

Appointed members shall serve four-year terms, except that the initial appointments by the North Carolina Bar Association, the North Carolina Bankers Association, the North Carolina Association of Assessing Officers, and three of the initial appointments by the North Carolina Association of Registers of Deeds shall be for two years. All initial terms shall commence on the effective date of this Article. Members shall serve until their successors are appointed. An appointing authority may reappoint a member for successive terms. A vacancy on the Council shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made, and the term shall be for the balance of the unexpired term.

(d)       Council Meetings and Officers. - The Secretary of State shall call the first meeting of the Council. At the first meeting and biennially thereafter, the Council shall elect from its membership a chair and a vice-chair to serve two-year terms. Meetings may be called by the chair, the vice-chair, or the Secretary of State. Meetings shall be held as often as necessary, but at least once a year.

(e)        Council Compensation. - None of the members of the Council shall receive compensation for serving on the Council, but Council members shall receive per diem, subsistence, and travel expenses in accordance with G.S. 138-5 and G.S. 138-6, as applicable.

(f)        Staff and Other Assistance. - As soon as practicable and as needed thereafter, the Council shall identify the information technology expertise it needs and report its needs to the Secretary of State. The Council shall also report any other expertise needed to fulfill its responsibilities. The Secretary of State shall provide professional and clerical staff and other services and supplies, including meeting space, as needed for the Council to carry out its duties in an effective manner. The Secretary of State may appoint additional committees to advise and assist the Council in its work.

The Council shall consult with the North Carolina Local Government Information Systems Association, and may consult with any other person the Council deems appropriate, to advise and assist the Council in its work.

(g)        Uniformity of Standards. - To keep the standards and practices of registers of deeds in this State in harmony with the standards and practices of recording offices in other jurisdictions that enact substantially this Article and to keep the technology used by registers of deeds in this State compatible with technology used by recording offices in other jurisdictions that enact substantially this Article, the Secretary of State and the Council shall consider all of the following in carrying out their responsibilities under this Article, so far as is consistent with its purposes, policies, and provisions:

(1)        Standards and practices of other jurisdictions.

(2)        The most recent standards adopted by national standard-setting bodies, such as the Property Records Industry Association.

(3)        The views of interested persons and other governmental officials and entities.

(4)        The needs of counties of varying size, population, and resources.

(5)        Standards requiring adequate information security protection to ensure that electronic documents are accurate, authentic, adequately preserved, and resistant to tampering.  (2005-391, s. 1; 2015-241, s. 14.30(t).)

 

§ 47-16.6.  Uniformity of application and construction.

In applying and construing this Article, consideration shall be given to promoting uniformity of interpretation of the Uniform Real Property Electronic Recording Act among states that enact it. (2005-391, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-16.7.  Relation to Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act.

This Article modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. § 7001, et seq.) but does not modify, limit, or supersede section 101(c) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7001(c)) or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in section 103(b) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7003(b)). (2005-391, s. 1.)

 

 

Article 2.

Registration.

§ 47-17.  Probate and registration sufficient without livery of seizin, etc.

All deeds, contracts or leases, before registration, except those executed prior to January 1, 1870, shall be acknowledged by the  grantor, lessor or the person executing the same, or their signature proven on oath by one or more witnesses in the manner prescribed by law, and all deeds executed and registered according to law shall be valid, and pass title and estates without livery of seizin, attornment or other ceremony. (29, Ch. II, c. 3; 1715, c. 7; 1756, c. 58, s. 3; 1838-9, c. 33; R.C., c. 37, s. 1; Code, s. 1245; 1885, c. 147, s. 3; 1905, c. 277; Rev., s. 979; C.S., s. 3308.)

 

§ 47-17.1.  Documents registered or ordered to be registered in certain counties to designate draftsman; exceptions.

The register of deeds of any county in North Carolina shall not accept for registration, nor shall any judge order registration pursuant to G.S. 47-14, of any deeds or deeds of trust, executed after January 1, 1980, unless the first page of the deeds or deeds of trust bears an entry showing the name of either the person or law firm who drafted the instrument.  (1953, c. 1160; 1955, cc. 54, 59, 87, 88, 264, 280, 410, 628, 655; 1957, cc. 431, 469, 932, 982, 1119, 1290; 1959, cc. 266, 312, 548, 589; 1961, cc. 789, 1167; 1965, cc. 160, 597, 830; 1967, cc. 42, 139; c. 639, s. 2; c. 658; 1969, c. 10; 1971, c. 46; 1973, cc. 65, 283, 342; 1979, c. 703; 1981, c. 362, ss. 1, 2; 2011-351, s. 3.)

 

§ 47-17.2.  Assignments of mortgages, deeds of trust, or other agreements pledging real property as security.

It shall not be necessary in order to effect a valid assignment of a note and deed of trust, mortgage, or other agreement pledging real property or an interest in real property as security for an obligation, to record a written assignment in the office of the register of deeds in the county in which the real property is located.  A transfer of the promissory note or other instrument secured by the deed of trust, mortgage, or other security interest that constitutes an effective assignment under the law of this State shall be an effective assignment of the deed of trust, mortgage, or other security instrument.  The assignee of the note shall have the right to enforce all obligations contained in the promissory note or other agreement, and all the rights of the assignor in the deed of trust, mortgage, or other security instrument, including the right to substitute the trustee named in any deed of trust, and to exercise any power of sale contained in the instrument without restriction.  The provisions of this section do not preclude the recordation of a written assignment of a deed of trust, mortgage, or other security instrument, with or without the promissory note or other instrument that it secures, provided that the assignment complies with applicable law. (1993, c. 288, s. 4.)

 

§ 47-18.  Conveyances, contracts to convey, options and leases of land.

(a)        No (i) conveyance of land, or (ii) contract to convey, or (iii) option to convey, or (iv) lease of land for more than three years shall be valid to pass any property interest as against lien creditors or purchasers for a valuable consideration from the donor, bargainer or lesser but from the time of registration thereof in the county where the land lies, or if the land is located in more than one county, then in each county where any portion of the land lies to be effective as to the land in that county. Unless otherwise stated either on the registered instrument or on a separate registered instrument duly executed by the party whose priority interest is adversely affected, (i) instruments registered in the office of the register of deeds shall have priority based on the order of registration as determined by the time of registration, and (ii) if instruments are registered simultaneously, then the instruments shall be presumed to have priority as determined by:

(1)        The earliest document number set forth on the  registered instrument.

(2)        The sequential book and page number set forth on the registered instrument if no document number is set forth on the registered instrument.

The presumption created by this subsection is rebuttable.

(b)        This section shall not apply to contracts, leases or deeds executed prior to March 1, 1885, until January 1, 1886; and no purchase from any such donor, bargainor or lessor shall avail or pass title as against any unregistered deed executed prior to December 1, 1885, when the person holding or claiming under such unregistered deed shall be in actual possession and enjoyment of such land, either in person or by his tenant, at the time of the execution of such second deed, or when the person claiming under or taking such second deed had at the time of taking or purchasing under such deed actual or constructive notice of such unregistered deed, or the claim of the person holding or claiming thereunder. (Code, s. 1245; 1885, c. 147, s. 1; Rev., s. 980; C.S., s. 3309; 1959, c. 90; 1975, c. 507; 2003-219, s. 2; 2005-212, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-18.1.  Registration of certificate of corporate merger, consolidation, or conversion.

(a)        If title to real property in this State is vested by operation of law in another entity upon the merger, consolidation, or conversion of an entity, such vesting is effective against lien creditors or purchasers for a valuable consideration from the entity formerly owning the property, only from the time of registration of a certificate thereof as provided in this section, in the county where the land lies, or if the land is located in more than one county, then in each county where any portion of the land lies to be effective as to the land in that county.

(b)        The Secretary of State shall adopt uniform certificates of merger, consolidation, or conversion, to be furnished for registration, and shall adopt such fees as are necessary for the expense of such certification. If the entity involved is not a domestic entity, a similar certificate by any competent authority in the jurisdiction of incorporation or organization may be registered in accordance with this section.

(c)        A certificate of the Secretary of State prepared in accordance with this section shall be registered by the register of deeds in the same manner as deeds, and for the same fees, but no formalities as to acknowledgment, probate, or approval by any other officer shall be required. The name of the entity formerly owning the property shall appear in the "Grantor" index, and the name of the entity owning the property by virtue of the merger, consolidation, or conversion shall appear in the "Grantee" index. (1967, c. 950, s. 3; 1991, c. 645, s. 2(b); 1999-369, s. 5.1.)

 

§ 47-18.2.  Registration of Inheritance and Estate Tax Waiver.

An Inheritance and Estate Tax Waiver or other consent to transfer issued by the Secretary of Revenue bearing the signature of the Secretary of Revenue or the official facsimile signature of the Secretary of Revenue may be registered by the Register of Deeds in the county or counties where the real estate described in the Inheritance and Estate Tax Waiver or consent to transfer is located in the same manner as deeds, and for the same fees, but no formalities as to acknowledgement, probate, or approval by an officer shall be required.  The name of the decedent owning the real property at death shall appear in the "Grantor" index.  Nothing herein shall require a personal representative or other person interested in the decedent's estate to register Inheritance and Estate Tax Waivers or consents to transfer. (1987, c. 548, s. 3.)

 

§ 47-18.3.  Execution of corporate instruments; authority and proof.

(a)        Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the bylaws or articles of incorporation, when it appears on the face of an instrument registered in the office of the register of deeds that the instrument was signed in the ordinary course of business on behalf of a domestic or foreign corporation by its chairman, president, chief executive officer, a vice-president or an assistant vice-president, treasurer, or chief financial officer, such an instrument shall be as valid with respect to the rights of innocent third parties as if executed pursuant to authorization from the board of directors, unless the instrument reveals on its face a potential breach of fiduciary obligation.  The subsection shall not apply to parties who had actual knowledge of lack of authority or of a breach of fiduciary obligation.

(b)        Any instrument registered in the office of the register of deeds, appearing on its face to be executed by a corporation, foreign or domestic, and bearing a seal which purports to be the corporate seal, setting forth the name of the corporation engraved, lithographed, printed, stamped, impressed upon, or otherwise affixed to the instrument, is prima facie evidence that the seal is the duly adopted corporate seal of the corporation, that it has been affixed as such by a person duly authorized so to do, that the instrument was duly executed and signed by persons who were officers or agents of the corporation acting by authority duly given by the board of directors, and that any such instrument is the act of the corporation, and shall be admissible in evidence without further proof of execution.

(c)        Nothing in this section shall be deemed to exclude the power of any corporate representatives to bind the corporation pursuant to express, implied, inherent or apparent authority, ratification, estoppel, or otherwise.

(d)       Nothing in this section shall relieve corporate officers from liability to the corporation or from any other liability that they may have incurred from any violation of their actual authority.

(e)        Any corporation may convey an interest in real property which is transferable by instrument which is duly executed by either an officer, manager, or agent of said corporation and has attached thereto a signed and attested resolution of the board of directors of said corporation authorizing the said officer, manager, or agent to execute, sign, seal, and attest deeds, conveyances, or other instruments. This section shall be deemed to have been complied with if an attested resolution is recorded separately in the office of the register of deeds in the county where the land lies, which said resolution shall be applicable to all deeds executed subsequently thereto and pursuant to its authority. Notwithstanding the foregoing, this section shall not require a signed and attested resolution of the board of directors of the corporation to be attached to an instrument or separately recorded in the case of an instrument duly executed by the corporation's chairman, president, chief executive officer, a vice-president, assistant vice-president, treasurer, or chief financial officer. All deeds, conveyances, or other instruments which have been heretofore or shall be hereafter so executed shall, if otherwise sufficient, be valid and shall have the effect to pass the title to the real or personal property described therein. (1991, c. 647, s. 2; 1999-221, s. 4.)

 

§ 47-19.  Unregistered deeds prior to January, 1920, registered on affidavit.

Any person holding any unregistered deed or claiming title  thereunder, executed prior to the first day of January, 1920, may have the same registered without proof of the execution thereof by making an affidavit, before the officer having jurisdiction to take probate of such deed, that the grantor, bargainor or maker of such deed, and the witnesses thereto, are dead or cannot be found, that he cannot make proof of their handwriting, and that affiant believes such deed to be a bona fide deed and executed by the grantor therein named. Said affidavit shall be written upon or attached to such deed, and the same, together with such deed, shall be entitled to registration in the same manner and with the same effect as if proved in the manner prescribed by law for other deeds. (1885, c. 147, s. 2; 1905, c. 277; Rev., s. 981; 1913, c. 116; 1915, cc. 13, 90; C.S., s. 3310; Ex. Sess. 1924, c. 56; 1951, c. 771.)

 

§ 47-20.  Deeds of trust, mortgages, conditional sales contracts, assignments of leases and rents; effect of registration.

(a)        No deed of trust or mortgage of real or personal property, or of a leasehold interest or other chattel real, or conditional sales contract of personal property in which the title is retained by the vendor, shall be valid to pass any property as against lien creditors or purchasers for a valuable consideration from the grantor, mortgagor or conditional sales vendee, but from the time of registration thereof as provided in this Article; provided however that any transaction subject to the provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code (Chapter 25 of the General Statutes) is controlled by the provisions of that act and not by this section. Unless otherwise stated either on the registered instrument or on a separate registered instrument duly executed by the party whose priority interest is adversely affected, (i) instruments registered in the office of the register of deeds shall have priority based on the order of registration as determined by the time of  registration, and (ii) if instruments are registered simultaneously, then the instruments shall be presumed  to have priority as determined by:

(1)        The earliest document number set forth on the  registered instrument.

(2)        The sequential book and page number set forth on the registered instrument if no document number is set forth on the registered instrument.

The presumption created by this subsection is rebuttable.

(b)        For purposes of this section and G.S. 47-20.1, the following definitions apply:

(1)        "Rents, issues, or profits" means all amounts payable by or on behalf of any lessee, tenant, or other person having a possessory interest in real estate on account of or pursuant to any written or oral lease or other instrument evidencing a possessory interest in real property or pursuant to any form of tenancy implied by law, and all amounts payable by or on behalf of any licensee or permittee or other person occupying or using real property under license or permission from the owner or person entitled to possession. The term shall not include farm products as defined in G.S. 25-9-102(34), timber, the proceeds from the sale of farm products or timber, or the proceeds from the recovery or severance of any mineral deposits located on or under real property.

(2)        "Assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits" means every document assigning, transferring, pledging, mortgaging, or conveying an interest in leases, licenses to real property, and rents, issues, or profits arising from real property, whether set forth in a separate instrument or contained in a mortgage, deed of trust, conditional sales contract, or other deed or instrument of conveyance.

(3)        "Collateral assignment" means any assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits made and delivered in connection with the grant of any mortgage, or the execution of any conditional sales contract or deed of trust or in connection with any extension of credit made against the security of any interest in real property, where the assignor retains the right to collect or to apply such lease revenues, rents, issues, or profits after assignment and prior to default.

(c)        The recording of a written document in accordance with G.S. 47-20.1 containing an assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits arising from real property shall be valid and enforceable from the time of recording to pass the interest granted, pledged, assigned, or transferred as against the assignor, and shall be perfected from the time of recording against subsequent assignees, lien creditors, and purchasers for a valuable consideration from the assignor.

(d)       Where an assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits is a collateral assignment, after a default under the mortgage, deed of trust, conditional sales contract, or evidence of indebtedness which such assignment secures, the assignee shall thereafter be entitled, but not required, to collect and receive any accrued and unpaid or subsequently accruing lease revenues, rents, issues, or profits subject to the assignment, without need for the appointment of a receiver, any act to take possession of the property, or any further demand on the assignor. Unless otherwise agreed, after default the assignee shall be entitled to notify the tenant or other obligor to make payment to him and shall also be entitled to take control of any proceeds to which he may be entitled. The assignee must proceed in a commercially reasonable manner and may deduct his reasonable expenses of realization from the collections.

(e)        This section shall not exclude other methods of creating, perfecting, collecting, sequestering, or enforcing a security interest in rents, issues, or profits provided by the law of this State. (1829, c. 20; R.C., c. 37, s. 22; Code, s. 1254; Rev., s. 982; 1909, c. 874, s. 1; C.S., s. 3311; 1953, c. 1190, s. 1; 1959, c. 1026, s. 2; 1965, c. 700, s. 8; 1967, c. 562, s. 5; 1991, c. 234, s. 1; 2000-169, s. 35; 2003-219, s. 3; 2005-212, s. 3.)

 

§ 47-20.1.  Place of registration; real property.

To be validly registered pursuant to G.S. 47-20, a deed of trust or mortgage of real property must be registered in the county where the land lies, or if the land is located in more than one county, then the deed of trust or mortgage must be registered in each county where any portion of the land lies in order to be effective as to the land in that county. (1953, c. 1190, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-20.2.  Place of registration; personal property.

(a)        As used in this section:

(1)        "Mortgage" includes a deed of trust and a conditional sales contract; unless subject to the filing requirements of Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (Chapter 25) and duly filed pursuant thereto;

(2)        "Mortgagor" includes a grantor in a deed of trust and a conditional sales vendee.

(b)        To be validly registered pursuant to G.S. 47-20, a mortgage of personal property must be registered as follows:

(1)        If the mortgagor is an individual:

a.         Who resides in this State, the mortgage must be registered in the county where the mortgagor resides when the mortgage is executed.

b.         Who resides outside this State, the mortgage must be registered in each county in this State where any of the tangible mortgaged property is located at the time the mortgage is executed, in order to be effective as to such property; and if any of the mortgaged property consists of a chose in action which arises out of the business transacted at a place of business operated by the mortgagor in this State, then the mortgage must be registered in the county where such place of business is located.

(2)        If the mortgagor is a partnership, either limited or unlimited:

a.         Which has a principal place of business in this State, the mortgage must be registered in the county where such place of business is located at the time the mortgage is executed.

b.         Which does not have a principal place of business in this State but has any place of business in this State, the mortgage must be registered in every county in this State where any such place of business is located at the time the mortgage is executed. Where such mortgage is registered in one or more of such counties but is not registered in every county required under this subsection, it shall, nevertheless, be effective as to the property in every county in which it is registered.

c.         Which has no place of business in the State, the mortgage must be registered in every county in this State where a partner resides at the time the mortgage is executed. Where such mortgage is registered in one or more of such counties but is not registered in every county required under this subsection, it shall, nevertheless, be effective as to the property in every county in which it is registered.

d.         Which has no place of business in this State, and no partner residing in this State, the mortgage must be registered in each county in this State where any of the mortgaged property is located when the mortgage is executed, in order to be effective as to the property in such county.

(3)        If the mortgagor is a domestic corporation:

a.         Which has a registered office in this State, the mortgage must be registered in the county where such registered office is located when the mortgage is executed.

b.         Which having been formed prior to July 1, 1957, has no such registered office but does have a principal office in this State as shown by its certificate of incorporation, or amendment thereto, or legislative charter, the mortgage must be registered in the county where the principal office is said to be located by such certificate of incorporation, or amendment thereto, or legislative charter when the mortgage is executed.

(4)        If the mortgagor is a foreign corporation:

a.         Which has a registered office in this State, the mortgage must be registered in the county where such registered office is located when the mortgage is executed.

b.         Which, having been domesticated prior to July 1, 1957, has no such registered office in this State, but does have a principal office in this State, the mortgage must be registered in the county where the principal office is said to be located by the statement filed with the Secretary of State in its application for permission to do business in this State or other document filed with the Secretary of State showing the location of such principal office in this State when the mortgage is executed.

c.         Which has not been domesticated in this State, the mortgage must be registered in the same county or counties as a mortgage executed by a nonresident individual.

(5)        If the personal property concerned is a vehicle required to be registered under the motor vehicle laws of the State of North Carolina, then the provisions of this section shall not apply but the security interest arising from the deed of trust, mortgage, conditional sales contract, or lease intended as security of such vehicle may be perfected by recordation in accordance with the provisions of G.S. 20-58 through 20-58.10. (1953, c. 1190, s. 2; 1957, c. 979, ss. 1, 2; 1961, c. 835, s. 12; 1965, c. 700, s. 8.)

 

§ 47-20.3.  Place of registration; instruments covering both personal property and real property.

To be validly registered pursuant to G.S. 47-20, a mortgage, deed of trust or conditional sales contract, or any combination of these, of both personal property and real property must be registered pursuant to the provisions of G.S. 47-20.1 for the real property covered by the instrument and pursuant to the provisions of G.S. 47-20.2 for the personal property covered by the instrument, and in each case the registration must be indexed in the records designated for the particular type of property involved. (1953, c. 1190, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-20.4.  Place of registration; chattel real.

To be validly registered pursuant to G.S. 47-20, a deed of trust or mortgage of a leasehold interest or other chattel real must be registered in the county where the land involved lies, or if the land involved is located in more than one county, then the deed of trust or mortgage must be registered in each county where any portion of the land involved lies in order to be effective as to the land in that county. (1959, c. 1026, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-20.5.  Real property; effectiveness of after-acquired property clause.

(a)        As used in this section, "after-acquired property clause" means any provision or provisions in an instrument which create a security interest in real property acquired by the grantor of the instrument subsequent to its execution.

(b)        As used in this section, "after-acquired property," and "property subsequently acquired" mean any real property which the grantor of a security instrument containing an after-acquired property clause acquires subsequent to the execution of such instrument, and in which the terms of the after-acquired property clause would create a security interest.

(c)        An after-acquired property clause is effective to pass after-acquired property as between the parties to the instrument containing such clause, but shall not be effective to pass title to after-acquired property as against lien creditors or purchasers for a valuable consideration from the grantor of the instrument unless and until such instrument has been registered or reregistered at or subsequent to the time such after-acquired property is acquired by such grantor and the deed to the grantor of the after-acquired property is registered.

(d)       In lieu of reregistering the instrument containing the after-acquired property clause as specified in subsection (c), such instrument may be made effective to pass title to after-acquired property as against lien creditors and purchasers for a valuable consideration from the grantor of the instrument by registering a notice of extension as specified in subsection (e) at or subsequent to the time of acquisition of the after-acquired property by the grantor.

(e)        The notice of extension shall

(1)        Show that effective registration of the after-acquired property clause is extended,

(2)        Include the names of the parties to the instrument containing the after-acquired property clause,

(3)        Refer to the book and page where the instrument containing the after-acquired property clause is registered, and

(4)        Be signed by the grantee or the person secured by the instrument containing the after-acquired property clause or his successor in interest.

(f)        The register of deeds shall index the notice of extension in the same manner as the instrument containing the after-acquired property clause.

(g)        Except as provided in subsection (h) of this section, no instrument which has been heretofore executed or registered and which contains an after-acquired property clause shall be effective to pass title to after-acquired property as against lien creditors or purchasers for a valuable consideration from the grantor of such instrument unless and until such instrument or a notice of extension thereof has been registered or reregistered as herein provided.

(h)        Notwithstanding the provisions of this section with respect to registration, reregistration and registration of notice of extension, an after-acquired property clause in an instrument which creates a security interest made by a public utility as defined in G.S. 62-3(23) or a natural gas company as defined in section 2(6) of the Natural Gas Act, 15 U.S.C.A. 717a(6), or by an electric or telephone membership corporation incorporated or domesticated in North Carolina shall be effective to pass after-acquired property as against lien creditors or purchasers for a valuable consideration from the grantor of the instrument from the time of original registration of such instrument. (1967, c. 861, s. 1; 1969, c. 813, ss. 1-3; 1997-386, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-20.6.  Affidavit for permanent attachment of titled manufactured home to real property.

(a)        If the owner of real property or the owner of the manufactured home who has entered into a lease with a primary term of at least 20 years for the real property on which the manufactured home is affixed has surrendered the title to a manufactured home that is placed on the real property and the title has been cancelled by the Division of Motor Vehicles under G.S. 20-109.2, the owner, or the secured party having the first security interest in the manufactured home at time of surrender, shall record the affidavit described in G.S. 20-109.2 with the office of the register of deeds of the county where the real property is located. Upon recordation, the affidavit shall be indexed on the grantor index in the name of the owner of the manufactured home and on the grantee index in the name of the secured party or lienholder, if any.

(b)        After the affidavit is recorded, the manufactured home becomes an improvement to real property. Any lien on the manufactured home shall be perfected and given priority in the manner provided for a lien on real property.

(c)        Following recordation of the affidavit, all existing liens on the real property are considered to include the manufactured home. Thereafter, no conveyance of any interest, lien, or encumbrance shall attach to the manufactured home, unless the interest, lien, or encumbrance is applicable to the real property on which the home is located and is recorded in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the real property is located in accordance with the applicable sections of this Chapter.

(d)       The provisions of this section control over the provisions of G.S. 25-9-334 relating to the priority of a security interest in fixtures, as applied to manufactured homes. (2001-506, s. 3; 2003-400, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-20.7.  Declaration of intent to affix manufactured home; transfer of real property with manufactured home attached.

(a)        A person who owns real property on which a manufactured home has been or will be placed or the owner of a manufactured home who has entered into a lease with a primary term of at least 20 years for the real property on which the manufactured home has been or will be placed, as defined in G.S. 105-273(13), and either where the manufactured home has never been titled by the Division of Motor Vehicles or where the title to the manufactured home has been surrendered and cancelled by the Division prior to January 1, 2002, may record in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the real property is located a declaration of intent to affix the manufactured home to the property and may convey or encumber the real property, including the manufactured home, by a deed, deed of trust, or other instrument recorded in the office of the register of deeds.

(b)        The declaration of intent, deed, deed of trust, or other instrument shall contain a description of the manufactured home, including the name of the manufacturer, the model name, if applicable, the serial number, and a statement of the owner's intention that the manufactured home be treated as property.

(c)        On or after the filing of the instrument with the office of the register of deeds pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the manufactured home placed, or to be placed, on the property becomes an improvement to real property. Any lien on the manufactured home shall be perfected and have priority in the manner provided for a lien on real property.

(d)       The provisions of this section control over the provisions of G.S. 25-9-334 relating to the priority of a security interest in fixtures, as applied to manufactured homes. (2001-506, s. 3; 2003-400, s. 3.)

 

§ 47-21.  Blank or master forms of mortgages, etc.; embodiment by reference in instruments later filed.

It shall be lawful for any person, firm or corporation to have a blank or master form of mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument conveying an interest in, or creating a lien on, real and/or personal property, filed, indexed and recorded in the office of the register of deeds. When any such blank or master form is filed, the register of deeds shall record it and shall index it in the manner now provided by law for the indexing of instruments recorded in the office of the register of deeds, except that the name of the person, firm or corporation whose name appears on such blank or master form shall be inserted in the indices as grantor and also as grantee. The fee for filing, recording and indexing such blank or master form shall be that for recording instruments in general, as provided in G.S. 161-10(a)(1).

When any deed, mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument conveying an interest in, or creating a lien on, real and/or personal property, refers to the provisions, terms, covenants, conditions, obligations, or powers set forth in any such blank or master form recorded as herein authorized, and states the office of recordation of such blank or master form, book and page where same is recorded such reference shall be equivalent to setting forth in extenso in such deed, mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument conveying an interest in, or creating a lien on, real and/or personal property, the provisions, terms, covenants, conditions, obligations and powers set forth in such blank or master form. Provided this section shall not apply to Alleghany, Ashe, Avery, Beaufort, Bladen, Camden, Carteret, Chowan, Cleveland, Columbus, Dare, Gates, Granville, Guilford, Halifax, Iredell, Jackson, Martin, Moore, Perquimans, Sampson, Stanly, Swain, Transylvania, Vance, Washington and Watauga Counties. (1935, c. 153; 1971, c. 156; 2001-390, s. 4.)

 

§ 47-22.  Counties may provide for photographic or photostatic registration.

The board of county commissioners of any county is hereby authorized and empowered to provide for photographic or photostatic recording of all instruments filed in the office of the register of deeds and in other offices of such county where said board may deem such recording feasible. The board of county commissioners may also provide for filing such copies of said instruments in loose-leaf binders. (1941, c. 286; 1971, c. 1185, s. 12.)

 

§ 47-23.  Repealed by Session Laws 1953, c. 1190, s. 3.

 

§ 47-24.  Conditional sales or leases of railroad property.

When any railroad equipment and rolling stock is sold, leased or loaned on the condition that the title to the same, notwithstanding the possession and use of the same by the vendee, lessee, or bailee, shall remain in the vendor, lessor or bailor until the terms of the contract, as to the payment of the installments, amounts or rentals payable, or the performance of other obligations thereunder, shall have been fully complied with, such contract shall be invalid as to any subsequent judgment creditor, or any subsequent purchaser for a valuable consideration without notice, unless -

(1)        The same is evidenced by writing duly acknowledged before some person authorized to take acknowledgments of deeds.

(2)        Such writing is registered as mortgages are registered, in the office of the register of deeds in at least one county in which such vendee, lessee or bailee does business.

(3)        Each locomotive or car so sold, leased or loaned has the name of the vendor, lessor, or bailor, or the assignee of such vendor, lessor or bailor plainly marked upon both sides thereof, followed by the word owner, lessor, bailor or assignee as the case may be.

This section shall not apply to or invalidate any contract made before the twelfth day of March, 1883. (1883, c. 416; Code, s. 2006; Rev., s. 984; 1907, c. 150, s. 1; C.S., s. 3313.)

 

§ 47-25.  Marriage settlements.

All marriage settlements and other marriage contracts, whereby any money or other estate is secured to the wife or husband, shall be proved or acknowledged and registered in the same manner as deeds for lands, and shall be valid against creditors and purchasers for value only from registration. (1785, c. 238; R.C., c. 37, ss. 24,  25; 1871-2, c. 193, s. 12; Code, ss. 1269, 1270, 1281; 1885, c. 147; Rev., s. 985; C.S., s. 3314.)

 

§ 47-26.  Deeds of gift.

All deeds of gift of any estate of any nature shall within two years after the making thereof be proved in due form and registered, or otherwise shall be void, and shall be good against creditors and purchasers for value only from the time of registration. (1789, c. 315, s. 2; R.C., c. 37, s. 18; Code, s. 1252; 1885, c. 147; Rev., s. 986; C.S., s. 3315.)

 

§ 47-27.  Deeds of easements.

All persons, firms, or corporations now owning or hereafter acquiring any deed or agreement for rights-of-way and easements of any character whatsoever shall record such deeds and agreements in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the land affected is situated. Where such deeds and agreements may have been acquired, but no use has been made thereof, the person, firm, or corporation holding such instrument, or any assignment thereof, shall not be required to record them until within 90 days after the beginning of the use of the easements granted thereby. If after 90 days from the beginning of the easement granted by such deeds and agreements the person, firm, or corporation holding such deeds or agreements has not recorded the same in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the land affected is situated, then the grantor in the said deed or agreement may, after 10 days' notice in writing served and returned by the sheriff or other officer of the county upon the said person, firm, or corporation holding such lease or agreement, file a copy of the said lease or agreement for registration in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the original should have been recorded, but such copy of the lease or agreement shall have attached thereto the written notice above referred to, showing the service and return of the sheriff or other officer. The registration of such copy shall have the same force and effect as the original would have had if recorded: Provided, said copy shall be duly probated before being registered.

Nothing in this section shall require the registration of the following classes of instruments or conveyances, to wit:

(1)        It shall not apply to any deed or instrument executed prior to January 1, 1910.

(2)        It shall not apply to any deed or instrument so defectively executed or witnessed that it cannot by law be admitted to probate or registration, provided that such deed or instrument was executed prior to the ratification of this section.

(3)        It shall not apply to decrees of a competent court awarding condemnation or confirming reports of commissioners, when such decrees are on record in such courts.

(4)        It shall not apply to local telephone companies, operating exclusively within the State, or to agreements about alleyways.

The failure of electric companies or power companies operating exclusively within this State or electric membership corporations, organized pursuant to Chapter 291 of the Public Laws of 1935 [G.S. 117-6 through 117-27], to record any deeds or agreements for rights-of-way acquired subsequent to 1935, shall not constitute any violation of any criminal law of the State of North Carolina.

No deed, agreement for right-of-way, or easement of any character shall be valid as against any creditor or purchaser for a valuable consideration but from the registration thereof within the county where the land affected thereby lies.

From and after July 1, 1959, the provisions of this section shall apply to require the Department of Transportation to record as herein provided any deeds of easement, or any other agreements granting or conveying an interest in land which are executed on or after July 1, 1959, in the same manner and to the same extent that individuals, firms or corporations are required to record such easements. (1917, c. 148; 1919, c. 107; C.S., s. 3316; 1943, c. 750; 1959, c. 1244; 1973, c. 507, s. 5; 1977, c. 464, s. 34.)

 

§ 47-28.  Powers of attorney.

(a)        Recording required for powers of attorney affecting real property:

(1)        Before any transfer of real property executed by an agent empowered by a power of attorney governed by Chapter 32C of the General Statutes, the power of attorney or a certified copy of the power of attorney shall be registered in the office of the register of deeds of the county in which the principal is domiciled or where the real property lies. If the principal is not a resident of North Carolina, the power of attorney or a certified copy of the power of attorney may be recorded in any county in the State wherein the principal owns real property or has a significant business reason for registering in the county.

(2)        If the real property lies in more than one county or in a county other than where the principal is domiciled, the power of attorney or a certified copy of the power of attorney shall be registered in the office of the register of deeds in one of the counties, and the instrument of transfer shall refer to the recordation specifically by reference to the book, page, and county where recorded.

(3)        Any instrument subject to the provisions of G.S. 47-17.2, 47-18, or 47-20 and signed by an agent and recorded in a county other than the county where a power of attorney is recorded in this State shall include the recording information, including book, page, and county for the power of attorney.

(4)        The failure to comply with the provisions of this subsection shall not affect the sufficiency, validity, or enforceability of the instrument but shall constitute an infraction.

(b)        If the instrument of conveyance is recorded prior to the registration of the power of attorney or a certified copy of the power of attorney pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the power of attorney or a certified copy of the power of attorney may be registered in the office of the register of deeds as provided in subsection (a) of this section thereafter provided that the agent was empowered at the time of the original conveyance. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, no conveyance shall be rendered invalid by the recordation of the power of attorney or a certified copy of the power of attorney after the instrument of conveyance, and the registration shall relate back to the date and time of registration of the instrument of conveyance.

(c)        The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall apply to all real property transfers utilizing an authority under any power of attorney whether made on or after April 1, 2013, and the provisions of subsection (b) of this section shall apply to all real property transfers utilizing an authority under any power of attorney whether made before, on, or after April 1, 2013.  (Code, s. 1249; 1899, c. 235, s. 15; Rev., s. 987; C.S., s. 3317; 2013-204, s. 1.15; 2017-153, s. 2.2.)

 

§ 47-29.  Recording of bankruptcy records.

A copy of the petition with the schedules omitted beginning a proceeding under the United States Bankruptcy Act, or of the decree  of adjudication in such proceeding, or of the order approving the bond of the trustee appointed in such proceeding, shall be recorded in the office of any register of deeds in North Carolina, and it shall be the duty of the register of deeds, on request, to record the same. The register of deeds shall be entitled to the same fees for such registration as he is now entitled to for recording conveyances. (1939, c. 254.)

 

§ 47-29.1.  Recordation of environmental notices.

(a)        A permit for the disposal of waste on land shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 130A-301.

(a1)      The disposal of land clearing and inert debris in a landfill with a disposal area of 1/2 acre or less pursuant to G.S. 130A-301.1 shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 130A-301.1(c).

(a2)      A Notice of Open Dump shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 130A-301(f).

(a3)      Expired pursuant to Session Laws 1995, c. 502, s. 4, as amended by Session Laws 2001-357, s. 2, effective September 30, 2003.

(a4)      The disposal of on-site demolition debris from the decommissioning of manufacturing buildings, including electric generating stations, shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 130A-301.3.

(b)        An inactive hazardous substance or waste disposal site shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 130A-310.8.

(c)        A Notice of Brownfields Property shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 130A-310.35.

(d)       A Notice of Oil or Hazardous Substance Discharge Site shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 143-215.85A.

(e)        A Notice of Dry-Cleaning Solvent Remediation shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 143-215.104M.

(f)        A Notice of Contaminated Site shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 143B-279.10.

(g)        A Notice of Residual Petroleum shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 143B-279.11.

(h)        A land-use restriction that provides for the maintenance of stormwater best management practices or site consistency with approved stormwater project plans shall be recorded as provided in G.S. 143-214.7(c1).  (1995, c. 502, s. 2.1; 1997-330, s. 1; 2001-357, s. 2; 2001-384, s. 10; 2006-246, s. 16(a);  2013-55, s. 3; 2013-410, s. 16.3.)

 

§ 47-30.  Plats and subdivisions; mapping requirements.

(a)        Size Requirements. - All land plats presented to the register of deeds for recording in the registry of a county in North Carolina after September 30, 1991, having an outside marginal size of either 18 inches by 24 inches, 21 inches by 30 inches, or 24 inches by 36 inches, and, for landscape format, having a minimum one and one-half inch border on the left side or, for portrait format, one and one-half inch border on the top side and a minimum one-half inch border on the other sides shall be deemed to meet the size requirements for recording under this section. Where size of land areas, or suitable scale to assure legibility require, plats may be placed on two or more sheets with appropriate match lines. Counties may specify either:

(1)        Only 18 inches by 24 inches;

(2)        A combination of 18 inches by 24 inches and 21 inches by 30 inches;

(3)        A combination of 18 inches by 24 inches and 24 inches by 36 inches; or

(4)        A combination of all three sizes.

Provided, that all registers of deeds where specific sizes other than the combination of all three sizes have been specified, shall be required to submit said size specifications to the North Carolina Association of Registers of Deeds for inclusion on a master list of all such counties. The list shall be available in each register of deeds office by October 1, 1991. For purposes of this section, the terms "plat" and "map" are synonymous.

(b)        Plats to Be Reproducible. - Each plat presented for recording shall be a reproducible plat, either original ink on polyester film (mylar), or a reproduced drawing, transparent and archival (as defined by the American National Standards Institute), and submitted in this form. The recorded plat must be such that the public may obtain legible copies. A direct or photographic copy of each recorded plat shall be placed in the plat book or plat file maintained for that purpose and properly indexed for use. In those counties in which the register has made a security copy of the plat from which legible copies can be made, the original plat may be submitted in the form of black line on white paper instead of transparent and archival and may be returned to the person indicated on the plat.

(c)        Information Contained in Title of Plat. - The title of each plat shall contain the following information:

(1)        The property designation.

(2)        The name of the owner; provided, however, that the name of owner shall be shown for indexing purposes only and is not to be construed as title certification.

(3)        The location, to include county and State, and the township or city, if applicable.

(4)        The date or dates the survey was made.

(5)        The scale or scale ratio in words or figures and bar graph.

(6)        The name and address of surveyor preparing the plat, including the firm name and firm license number, if applicable.

(7)        The dates and descriptions of revisions made after original signing.

The information required pursuant to this subsection shall be listed prominently on the plat. Information listed in the notes contained on the plat does not satisfy the requirements of this subsection.

(d)       Certificate; Form. - There shall appear on each plat a certificate by the person under whose supervision the survey or plat was made, stating the reference source for the boundary information for the surveyed property shown on the plat, including recorded deed and plat references shown thereon. The ratio of precision or positional accuracy before any adjustments must be shown. Any lines on the plat that were not actually surveyed must be clearly indicated and a statement included revealing the source of information. Where a plat consists of more than one sheet, only one sheet must contain the certification and all other sheets must be signed and sealed. Multiple sheet plats shall be identified as a map set.

The certificate required above shall include (i) the source of information for the survey, (ii) data indicating the ratio of precision or positional accuracy of the survey before adjustments, and (iii) the seal and signature pursuant to Chapter 89C of the General Statutes, and shall be in substantially the following form:

"I, ________, certify that this plat was drawn under my supervision from an actual survey made under my supervision (deed description recorded in Book ____, page ____, etc.) (other); that the boundaries not surveyed are clearly indicated as drawn from information found in Book ____, page ____; that the ratio of precision or positional accuracy as calculated is ______; that this plat was prepared in accordance with G.S. 47-30 as amended. Witness my original signature, license number and seal this ____ day of ____, A.D., ____.

Seal or Stamp

                                                                                    ______________________________

                                                                                    Professional Land Surveyor

                                                                                    License Number"

Nothing in this requirement shall prevent the recording of a map that was prepared in accordance with a previous version of G.S. 47-30 as amended, properly signed, and notarized under the statutes applicable at the time of the signing of the map. However, it shall be the responsibility of the person presenting the map to prove that the map was so prepared. The presence of the personal signature and seal of a professional land surveyor shall constitute a certification that the map conforms to the standards of practice for land surveying in this State as defined in the rules of the North Carolina State Board of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors.

(e)        Method of Computation. - An accurate method of computation shall be used to determine the acreage and either the ratio of precision or the positional accuracy shown on the plat. Area by estimation is not acceptable nor is area by planimeter, area by scale, or area copied from another source, except in the case of tracts containing inaccessible sections or areas. In such case the surveyor may make use of aerial photographs or other appropriate aids to determine the acreage of any inaccessible areas when the areas are bounded by natural and visible monuments. In such case the methods used must be stated on the plat and all accessible areas of the tract shall remain subject to all applicable standards of this section.

(f)        Plat to Contain Specific Information. - Every plat shall contain the following specific information:

(1)        An accurately positioned north arrow coordinated with any bearings shown on the plat. Indication shall be made as to whether the north index is true, magnetic, North Carolina grid ("NAD 83," "NAD 27," or other published horizontal datum), or is referenced to old deed or plat bearings. If the north index is magnetic or referenced to old deed or plat bearings, the date and the source (if known) the index was originally determined shall be clearly indicated. North Carolina grid reference shall include the horizontal datum and the realization reference.

(2)        The azimuth or course and distance of every property line surveyed shall be shown. Distances shall be in U.S. Survey feet or meters and decimals thereof. The number of decimal places shall be appropriate to the class of survey required.

(3)        All plat distances shall be by horizontal ground or horizontal grid measurements. All lines shown on the plat shall be correctly plotted to the scale shown. Enlargement of portions of a plat are acceptable in the interest of clarity, where shown as inserts. Where the North Carolina grid system is used the combined grid factor shall be shown on the face of the plat. If grid distances are used, it must be indicated on the plat.

(4)        Where a boundary is formed by a curved line, the following data must be given: actual survey data from the point of curvature to the point of tangency shall be shown as standard curve data, or as a traverse of bearings and distances around the curve. If standard curve data is used the bearing and distance of the long chord (from point of curvature to point of tangency) must be shown on the plat.

(5)        Where a subdivision of land is set out on the plat, all streets and lots shall be accurately plotted with dimension lines indicating widths and all other information pertinent to reestablishing all lines in the field. This shall include bearings and distances sufficient to form a continuous closure of the entire perimeter.

(6)        All corners which are marked by monument or natural object shall be so identified on all plats, and where practical all corners of adjacent owners along the boundary lines of the subject tract which are marked by monument or natural object shall be shown.

(7)        The names of adjacent landowners, or lot, block, parcel, subdivision name designations or other legal reference, where applicable, shall be shown where they could be determined by the surveyor.

(8)        All visible and apparent rights-of-way, watercourses, utilities, roadways, and other such improvements shall be accurately located where crossing or forming any boundary line of the property shown. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to modify the notification responsibility of persons engaged in excavation or demolition pursuant to G.S. 87-122.

(9)        Where the plat is the result of a survey, one or more corners shall be labeled with coordinates on the plat, shown as "X" (easting) and "Y" (northing) coordinates, traceable to a published geodetic datum or the North Carolina State Plane Coordinate System, or both. The plat should include, at a minimum, the referenced horizontal datum and realization (i.e., "NAD 83 (2011)") as well as the data or method used to establish those coordinates, or both. If the bearings shown on the map are not referenced to the same datum as the grid coordinates shown, then either (i) the coordinates of a second point shall be labeled and the two labeled points tied together by a single azimuth or course and distance or (ii) the plat shall include, in written and graphical form, the conversion from plat bearings to reference bearings. Control monuments within a previously recorded subdivision may be used in lieu of grid control. In the interest of consistency with previously recorded plats, existing bearing control may be used where practical. Where no horizontal control monument of any United States or State agency survey system, such as the North Carolina Geodetic Survey, is located within 2,000 feet of the subject property, ties to other appropriate natural monuments or landmarks may be used in lieu of grid coordinates. In all cases, the tie lines shall be sufficient to reproduce the subject lands from the control or reference points used.

(10)      A vicinity map (location map) and legend shall appear on the plat.

(11)      Notwithstanding any other provision contained in this section, it is the duty of the surveyor, by a certificate on the face of the plat, to certify to one of the following:

a.         That the survey creates a subdivision of land within the area of a county or municipality that has an ordinance that regulates parcels of land.

b.         That the survey is located in a portion of a county or municipality that is unregulated as to an ordinance that regulates parcels of land.

c.         Any one of the following:

1.         That the survey is of an existing parcel or parcels of land or one or more existing easements and does not create a new street or change an existing street. For the purposes of this subsection, an "existing parcel" or "existing easement" is an area of land described in a single, legal description or legally recorded subdivision that has been or may be legally conveyed to a new owner by deed in its existing configuration.

2.         That the survey is of an existing feature, such as a building or other structure, or natural feature, such as a watercourse.

3.         That the survey is a control survey. For the purposes of this subsection, a "control survey" is a survey that provides horizontal or vertical position data for support or control of other surveys or for mapping. A control survey, by itself, cannot be used to define or convey rights or ownership.

4.         That the survey is of a proposed easement for a public utility as defined in G.S. 62-3.

d.         That the survey is of another category, such as the recombination of existing parcels, a court-ordered survey, or other exemption or exception to the definition of subdivision.

e.         That the information available to the surveyor is such that the surveyor is unable to make a determination to the best of the surveyor's professional ability as to provisions contained in (a) through (d) above.

If the plat contains the certificate of a surveyor as stated in sub-subdivisions b. or c. of this subdivision, nothing shall prevent the recordation of the plat if all other provisions have been met. However, if the plat contains the certificate of a surveyor as stated in sub-subdivisions a., d., or e. of this subdivision, then the plat shall have, in addition to said surveyor's certificate, a certification of approval, or no approval required, as may be required by local ordinance from the appropriate government authority and the county review officer as provided in G.S. 47-30.2 before the plat is presented for recordation. The signing and sealing of the certification as required in subsection (d) of this section shall satisfy the certification requirement contained in this subsection.

(g)        Recording of Plat. - In certifying a plat for recording pursuant to G.S. 47-30.2, the Review Officer shall not be responsible for reviewing or certifying as to any of the following requirements of this section:

(1)        Subsection (b) of this section as to archival.

(2)        Repealed by Session Laws 1997-309, s. 2.

(3)        Subsection (e) of this section.

(4)        Subdivisions (1) through (10) of subsection (f) of this section.

A plat, when certified pursuant to G.S. 47-30.2 and presented for recording, shall be recorded in the plat book or plat file and when so recorded shall be duly indexed. Reference in any instrument hereafter executed to the record of any plat herein authorized shall have the same effect as if the description of the lands as indicated on the record of the plat were set out in the instrument.

(h)        Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent the filing of any plat prepared by a professional land surveyor but not recorded prior to the death of the professional land surveyor. However, it is the responsibility of the person presenting the map to the Review Officer pursuant to G.S. 47-30.2 to prove that the plat was so prepared. For preservation these plats may be filed without signature, notary acknowledgement or probate, in a special plat file.

(i)         Nothing in this section shall be deemed to invalidate any instrument or the title thereby conveyed making reference to any recorded plat.

(j)         The provisions of this section shall not apply to boundary plats of State lines, county lines, areas annexed by municipalities, nor to plats of municipal boundaries, whether or not required by law to be recorded.

(k)        The provisions of this section shall apply to all counties in North Carolina.

(l)         This section does not apply to the registration of highway right-of-way plans provided for in G.S. 136-19.4 or G.S. 136-89.184, nor to the registration of roadway corridor official maps provided for in Article 2E of Chapter 136 of the General Statutes.

(m)       Maps attached to deeds or other instruments and submitted for recording in that form must be no larger than 8 1/2 inches by 14 inches and comply with either this subsection or subsection (n) of this section. A map submitted for recording pursuant to this subsection shall conform to one the following standards:

(1)        An original map that meets the requirements of subsections (c) through (f) of this section and that bears the signature of a professional land surveyor and the surveyor's seal as approved by the State Board of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors.

(2)        A copy of a previously recorded map that is certified by the custodian of the public record to be a true and accurate copy of the map.

(n)        A map that does not meet the requirements of subsection (m) of this section may be attached to a deed or other instrument submitted for recording in that form for illustrative purposes only if it meets both of the following requirements:

(1)        It is no larger than 8 1/2 inches by 14 inches.

(2)        It is conspicuously labelled, "THIS MAP MAY NOT BE A CERTIFIED SURVEY AND HAS NOT BEEN REVIEWED BY A LOCAL GOVERNMENT AGENCY FOR COMPLIANCE WITH ANY APPLICABLE LAND DEVELOPMENT REGULATIONS AND HAS NOT BEEN REVIEWED FOR COMPLIANCE WITH RECORDING REQUIREMENTS FOR PLATS."

(o)        The requirements of this section regarding plat size, reproducible form, and evidence of required certifications shall be met with respect to a plat that is an "electronic document," as that term is defined in G.S. 47-16.2(3), if all of the following conditions have been met:

(1)        The register of deeds has authorized the submitter to electronically register the electronic document.

(2)        The plat is submitted by a United States federal or a state governmental unit or instrumentality or a trusted submitter. For purposes of this subsection, "a trusted submitter" means a person or entity that has entered into a memorandum of understanding regarding electronic recording with the register of deeds in the county in which the electronic document is to be submitted.

(3)        Evidence of required certifications appear on the digitized image of the document as it will appear on the public record.

(4)        With respect to a plat submitted by a trusted submitter, the digitized image of the document as it will appear on the public record contains the submitter's name in the following completed statement on the first page of the document image: "Submitted electronically by __________ (submitter's name) in compliance with North Carolina statutes governing recordable documents and the terms of the submitter agreement with the __________ (insert county name) County Register of Deeds.

(5)        Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the digitized image of the plat conforms to all other applicable laws and rules that prescribe recordation.  (1911, c. 55, s. 2; C.S., s. 3318; 1923, c. 105; 1935, c. 219; 1941, c. 249; 1953, c. 47, s. 1; 1959, c. 1235, ss. 1, 3A, 3.1; 1961, cc. 7, 111, 164, 199, 252, 660, 687, 932, 1122; 1963, c. 71, ss. 1, 2; cc. 180, 236; c. 361, s. 1; c. 403; 1965, c. 139, s. 1; 1967, c. 228, s. 2; c. 394; 1971, c. 658; 1973, cc. 76, 848, 1171; c. 1262, s. 86; 1975, c. 192; c. 200, s. 1; 1977, c. 50, s. 1; c. 221, s. 1; c. 305, s. 2; c. 771, s. 4; 1979, c. 330, s. 1; 1981, c. 138, s. 1; c. 140, s. 1; c. 479; 1983, c. 473; 1987, c. 747, s. 20; 1989, c. 727, s. 218(6); 1991, c. 268, s. 3; 1993, c. 119, ss. 1, 2; 1997-309, s. 2; 1997-443, s. 11A.119(a); 1998-228, ss. 11, 12; 1999-456, s. 59; 2000-140, s. 93.1(b); 2001-424, s. 12.2(b); 2008-225, s. 9; 2010-180, s. 1; 2011-246, s. 7; 2012-142, s. 12.4(f); 2017-27, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-30.1.  Plats and subdivisions; alternative requirements.

In a county to which the provisions of G.S. 47-30 do not apply, any person, firm or corporation owning land may have a plat thereof recorded in the office of the register of deeds if such land or any part thereof is situated in the county, upon proof upon oath by the surveyor making such plat or under whose supervision such plat was made that the same is in all respects correct according to the best of his knowledge and belief and was prepared from an actual survey by him made, or made under his supervision, giving the date of such survey, or if the surveyor making such plat is dead, or where land has been sold and conveyed according to an unrecorded plat, upon the oath of a duly licensed surveyor that said map is in all respects correct according to the best of his knowledge and belief and that the same was actually and fully checked and verified by him, giving the date on which the same was verified and checked. (1961, c. 534, s. 1; c. 985.)

 

§ 47-30.2.  Review Officer.

(a)        The board of commissioners of each county shall, by resolution, designate by name one or more persons experienced in mapping or land records management as a Review Officer to review each map and plat required to be submitted for review before the map or plat is presented to the register of deeds for recording. Each person designated a Review Officer shall, if reasonably feasible, be certified as a property mapper pursuant to G.S. 147-54.4. A resolution designating a Review Officer shall be recorded in the county registry and indexed on the grantor index in the name of the Review Officer.

(b)        The Review Officer shall review expeditiously each map or plat required to be submitted to the Officer before the map or plat is presented to the register of deeds for recording. The Review Officer shall certify the map or plat if it complies with all statutory requirements for recording.

Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the register of deeds shall not accept for recording any map or plat required to be submitted to the Review Officer unless the map or plat has the certification of the Review Officer affixed to it. A certification shall be in substantially the following form:

State of North Carolina

County of

I,  ____________, Review Officer of __________ County, certify that the map or plat to which this certification is affixed meets all statutory requirements for recording.

 

_______________________________

Review Officer

Date__________________________

(c)        A map or plat must be presented to the Review Officer unless one or more of the following conditions are applicable:

(1)        The certificate required by G.S. 47-30(f)(11) shows that the map or plat is a survey within the meaning of G.S. 47-30(f)(11)b. or c.

(2)        The map or plat is exempt from the requirements of G.S. 47-30 pursuant to G.S. 47-30(j) or (l).

(3)        The map is an attachment that is being recorded pursuant to G.S. 47-30(n). (1997-309, s. 3; 1998-228, s. 13.)

 

§ 47-31.  Certified copies may be registered; used as evidence.

(a)        A duly certified copy of any deed or writing required or allowed to be registered may be registered in any county. The register of deeds may rely on the record keeper's certification on a presented document that the document is a certified copy and is not required to further verify the proof or acknowledgement otherwise required by G.S. 47-14 or to determine whether the document has been changed or altered after it was certified. The registered or duly certified copy of any deed or writing that has been registered in the county where the land is situate may be given in evidence in any court of the State.

(b)        Instruments registered pursuant to this section prior to July 6, 1993 that were not further certified pursuant to G.S. 47-14 at the time of registration are hereby validated.  (1858-9, c. 18, s. 2; Code, s. 1253; Rev., s. 988; C. S., s. 3319; 1993, c. 288, ss. 2, 3; 2008-194, s. 7(b).)

 

§ 47-32.  Photographic copies of plats, etc.

After January 1, 1960, in all special proceedings in which a map shall be filed as a part of the papers, such map shall meet the specifications required for recording of maps in the office of the register of deeds, and the clerk of superior court may certify a copy thereof to the register of deeds of the county in which said lands lie for recording in the Map Book provided for that purpose; and the clerk of superior court may have a photographic copy of said map made on a sheet of the same size as the leaves in the book in which the special proceeding is recorded, and when made, may place said photographic copy in said book at the end of the report of the commissioner or other document referring to said map.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to the following counties: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Beaufort, Camden, Clay, Franklin, Granville, Greene, Harnett, Hertford, Hoke, Hyde, Jackson, Jones, Lee, Lincoln, Madison, Martin, Northampton, Pamlico, Pasquotank, Pender, Person, Pitt, Richmond, Robeson, Rockingham, Sampson, Scotland, Surry, Swain, Vance, Warren, Washington, Watauga and Yadkin. (1931, c. 171; 1959, c. 1235, ss. 2, 3A, 3.1; 1961, cc. 7, 111, 164, 252, 697, 932, 1122; 1963, c. 71, s. 3; c. 236; c. 361, s. 2; 1965, c. 139, s. 2; 1971, c. 1185, s. 13; 1977, c. 111; c. 221, s. 2; 1981, c. 138, s. 1; c. 140, s. 1; 1985, c. 32, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-32.1.  Photostatic copies of plats, etc.; alternative provisions.

In a county to which the provisions of G.S. 47-32 do not apply, the following alternative provisions shall govern photostatic copies of plats filed in special proceedings:

In all special proceedings in which a plat, map or blueprint shall  be filed as a part of the papers, the clerk of the superior court may  have a photostatic copy of said plat, map or blueprint made on a sheet of the same size as the leaves in the book in which the special proceeding is recorded, and when made, shall place said photostatic copy in said book at the end of the report of the commissioners or other document referring to said plat, map or blueprint. (1961, c. 535, s. 1; 1971, c. 1185, s. 14.)

 

§ 47-32.2.  Violation of § 47-30 or § 47-32 a misdemeanor.

Any person, firm or corporation willfully violating the provisions of G.S. 47-30 or G.S. 47-32 shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be subject only to a fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50.00) nor more than five hundred dollars ($500.00).

The provisions of this section shall not apply to the following counties: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Beaufort, Camden, Clay, Franklin, Granville, Greene, Harnett, Hertford, Hoke, Hyde, Jackson, Jones, Lee, Lincoln, Madison, Martin, Northampton, Pamlico, Pasquotank, Pender, Person, Pitt, Richmond, Robeson, Rockingham, Sampson, Scotland, Surry, Swain, Vance, Warren, Washington, Watauga and Yadkin. (1959, c. 1235, ss. 3, 3A, 3.1; 1961, cc. 7, 111, 164, 252; c. 535, s. 1; cc. 687, 932, 1122; 1963, c. 236; c. 361, s. 3; 1965, c. 139, s. 3; 1977, c. 110; c. 221, s. 3; 1981, c. 138, s. 1; c. 140, s. 1; 1985, c. 32, s. 2; 1993, c. 539, s. 408; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)

 

§ 47-33.  Certified copies of deeds made by alien property custodian may be registered.

Any copy of a deed made, or purporting to be made, by the United States alien property custodian duly certified pursuant to title twenty-eight, section six hundred sixty-one of United States Code by the department of justice of the United States, with its official seal impressed thereon, when the said certified copy reveals the fact that the execution of the original was acknowledged by the alien property custodian before a notary public of the District of Columbia, and that the official seal of the alien property custodian by recital was affixed or impressed on the original, and further reveals it to have been approved, as to form, by general counsel, and the copy also shows that the original was signed and approved by the acting chief, division of trusts, and was witnessed by two witnesses, shall, when presented to the register of deeds of any county wherein the land described therein purports to be situate, be recorded by the register of deeds of such county without other or further proof of the execution and/or delivery of the original thereof, and the same when so recorded shall be indexed and cross-indexed by the register of deeds as are deeds made by individuals upon the payment of the usual and lawful fees for the registration thereof. (1937, c. 5, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-34.  Certified copies of deeds made by alien property custodian admissible in evidence.

The record of all such recorded copies of such instruments  authorized in G.S. 47-33 shall be received in evidence in all the courts of this State and the courts of the United States in the trial of any cause pending therein, the same as though and with like effect as if the original thereof had been probated and recorded as required by the law of North Carolina, and the record in the office of register of deeds of such recorded copy of such an instrument shall be presumptive evidence that the original of said copy was executed and delivered to the vendee, or vendees therein named, and that the original thereof has been lost or unintentionally destroyed without registration, and in the absence of legal proof to the contrary said so registered copy shall be conclusive evidence that the United States alien property custodian conveyed the lands and premises described in said registered copy to the vendees therein named, as said copy reveals, and title to such land shall pass by such recorded instrument. (1937, c. 5, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-35.  Register to fill in deeds on blank forms with lines.

Registers of deeds shall, in registering deeds and other instruments, where printed skeletons or forms are used by the register, fill all spaces left blank in such skeletons or forms by drawing or stamping a line or lines in ink through such blank spaces. (1911, c. 6, s. 1; C.S., s. 3320.)

 

§ 47-36.  Errors in registration corrected on petition to clerk.

Every person who discovers that there is an error in the registration of his grant, conveyance, bill of sale or other instrument of writing, may prefer a petition to the clerk of the superior court of the county in which said writing is registered, in the same manner as is directed for petitioners to correct errors in grants or patents, and if on hearing the same before said clerk it appears that errors have been committed, the clerk shall order the register of the county to correct such errors and make the record conformable to the original. The petitioner must notify his grantor and every person claiming title to or having lands adjoining those mentioned in the petition, 30 days previous to preferring the same. Any person dissatisfied with the judgment may appeal to the superior court as in other cases. (1790, c. 326, ss. 2, 3, 4; R.C., c. 37, s. 28; Code, s. 1266; Rev., s. 1008; C.S., s. 3321.)

 

§ 47-36.1.  (Effective Until August 31, 2018) Correction of errors in recorded instruments.

(a)        Notwithstanding G.S. 47-14 and G.S. 47-17, notice of typographical or other minor error in a deed or other instrument recorded with the register of deeds may be given by recording an affidavit. If an affidavit is conspicuously identified as a corrective or scrivener's affidavit in its title, the register of deeds shall index the name of the affiant, the names of the original parties in the instrument, the recording information of the instrument being corrected, and the original parties as they are named in the affidavit. A copy of the previously recorded instrument to which the affidavit applies may be attached to the affidavit and need not be a certified copy. To the extent the correction is inconsistent with the originally recorded instrument, and only to that extent, notice of the corrective information as provided by the affiant in the corrective affidavit is deemed to have been given as of the time the corrective affidavit is registered. Nothing in this section invalidates or otherwise alters the legal effect of any instrument of correction authorized by statute in effect on the date the instrument was registered.

(b)        Nothing in this section requires that an affidavit be attached to an original or certified copy of a previously recorded instrument that is unchanged but rerecorded. Nothing in this section requires that an affidavit be attached to a previously recorded instrument with a copy of a previously recorded instrument that includes identified corrections or an original execution by a party or parties of the corrected instrument after the original recording, with proof or acknowledgment of their execution of the correction of the instrument.

(c)        If the corrective affidavit is solely made by a notary public in order to correct a notarial certificate made by that notary public that was attached to an instrument already recorded with the register of deeds, the notary public shall complete the corrective affidavit identifying the correction and may attach a new acknowledgment completed as of the date the original acknowledgment took place, which shall be deemed attached to the original recording, and the instrument's priority shall remain the date and time originally recorded. The provisions of this subsection shall apply to corrective affidavits filed prior to, on, or after April 1, 2013.  (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 842, s. 1; 1987, c. 360, s. 1; 2008-194, s. 7(c); 2013-204, s. 1.16.)

 

§ 47-36.1.  (Effective August 31, 2018) Notice of errors in recorded instruments of title.

(a)        Notwithstanding G.S. 47-14 and G.S. 47-17, notice of a nonmaterial typographical or other minor error in a deed or other instrument recorded with the register of deeds may be given by recording a corrective notice affidavit. For purposes of this section, an error that would affect the respective rights of any party to the instrument is not a nonmaterial typographical or minor error. If a corrective notice affidavit is conspicuously identified as a corrective notice or scrivener's affidavit in its title, the register of deeds shall index the name of the affiant, the names of the original parties in the instrument, the recording information of the instrument for which the corrective notice is being given, and the original parties as they are named in the affidavit. A copy of the previously recorded instrument to which the corrective notice affidavit applies may be attached to the corrective notice affidavit and need not be a certified copy. To the extent the correction is inconsistent with the originally recorded instrument, and only to that extent, notice of the corrective information as provided by the affiant in the corrective notice affidavit is deemed to have been given as of the time the corrective notice affidavit is registered. Nothing in this section invalidates or otherwise alters the legal effect of any instrument of correction authorized by statute in effect on the date the instrument was registered.

(b)        Nothing in this section requires that an affidavit be attached to an original or certified copy of a previously recorded instrument that is unchanged but rerecorded. Nothing in this section requires that an affidavit be attached to a previously recorded instrument with a copy of a previously recorded instrument that includes identified corrections or an original execution by a party or parties of the corrected instrument after the original recording, with proof or acknowledgment of their execution of the correction of the instrument.

(c)        If the corrective affidavit is solely made by a notary public in order to correct a notarial certificate made by that notary public that was attached to an instrument already recorded with the register of deeds, the notary public shall complete the corrective affidavit identifying the correction and may attach a new acknowledgment completed as of the date the original acknowledgment took place, which shall be deemed attached to the original recording, and the instrument's priority shall remain the date and time originally recorded. The provisions of this subsection shall apply to corrective affidavits filed prior to, on, or after April 1, 2013.  (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 842, s. 1; 1987, c. 360, s. 1; 2008-194, s. 7(c); 2013-204, s. 1.16; 2017-110, s. 1.)

 

 

§ 47-36.2.  (Effective August 31, 2018) Cure of obvious description errors in recorded instruments.

(a)        The following definitions apply to this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

(1)        Authorized attorney. - An individual licensed to practice law under Chapter 84 of the General Statutes, who is one of the following:

a.         The attorney who drafted the instrument containing the obvious description error to be corrected.

b.         Any attorney for a party to the transaction for which the instrument containing the obvious description error was recorded, including, for example, but not limited to, the attorney for (i) the grantor or grantee in a deed; (ii) the mortgagor or mortgagee in a mortgage; (iii) the grantor or trustor in a deed of trust; (iv) the trustee or duly appointed substitute trustee in a deed of trust; (v) the beneficiary of record in a deed of trust or the assignee of record of the beneficiary's interest; (vi) the assignor or assignee in an assignment of leases, rents, or profits; or (vii) any party to an instrument affecting title to real property.

c.         An attorney retained or authorized by either a title insurance company or title insurance agent that either (i) has issued a policy of title insurance covering the subject property in the transaction in which the error occurred or in any subsequent transaction or (ii) proposes to issue a policy of title insurance in reliance on a curative affidavit recorded or to be recorded in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(2)        Curative affidavit. - An affidavit executed by an authorized attorney to correct an obvious description error.

(3)        Notice of intent. - A notice issued by an authorized attorney of the authorized attorney's intent to sign and record a curative affidavit.

(4)        Obvious description error. - An error in the legal description of real property that is contained in an instrument affecting title to real property recorded in the office of the register of deeds in the county in which the real property or any part or parts thereof is located that is evidenced by any of the following:

a.         One or more of the following, as stated in the instrument, are inconsistent in that one or more identify the property incorrectly, and the error is made apparent by reference to other information contained in the instrument, contained in an attachment to the instrument, or contained in another instrument in the chain of title for the subject parcel, including a recorded plat:

1.         The legal description of the property.

2.         The physical address of the property.

3.         The tax map identification number of the property.

4.         A plat reference.

5.         A prior deed reference.

b.         The legal description of the real property in the instrument contains one or more errors transcribing courses and distances, including, for example, the omission of one or more lines of courses and distances, the omission of angles and compass directions, or the reversal of courses.

c.         The instrument contains an error in a lot or unit number or designation, and the lot or unit described is not owned by the grantor, trustor, mortgagor, or assignor at the time the instrument is executed.

d.         The instrument omits an exhibit, attachment, or other descriptive information intended to supply the legal description of the subject property, and the correct legal description may be determined by reference to other information contained in the instrument, including, but not limited to, one or more of the items described in sub-subdivision a. of this subdivision.

The term "obvious description error" does not include and shall not apply to (i) missing or improper signatures or acknowledgements; (ii) any designation of the type of ownership interest or right of survivorship; or (iii) any error in the legal description that operates to convey any interest in real property that the grantor, trustor, mortgagor, or assignor owned at the time of conveyance but did not intend to convey.

(5)        Recorded plat. - A plat that has been prepared by a professional land surveyor licensed pursuant to Chapter 89C of the General Statutes and has been recorded with the register of deeds in the county where the property is situated.

(6)        Recording data. - The book and page number or document number that indicates where an instrument is recorded in the office of the register of deeds.

(7)        Title insurance agent. - A person or entity licensed by the Commissioner of Insurance and contractually authorized by one or more title insurance companies to issue commitments and policies on behalf of said title insurance company and that has issued or proposes to issue a policy of title insurance covering real property described in a recorded instrument needing correction.

(8)        Title insurance company. - A company certified pursuant to Article 26 of Chapter 58 of the General Statutes that has issued or proposes to issue a policy of title insurance covering real property described in a recorded instrument needing correction.

(b)        Notwithstanding G.S. 47-14 and G.S. 47-17, obvious description errors in a recorded instrument affecting title to real property may be cured by recording a curative affidavit with the register of deeds in every county where the real property is situated.

(c)        Prior to recording a curative affidavit as described in subsection (b) of this section, the authorized attorney seeking to record the affidavit shall serve a notice of intent and a copy of the unsigned proposed curative affidavit on the persons identified in this subsection. Service of the notice of intent and copy of the unsigned proposed curative affidavit shall be made in any manner prescribed for the service of a summons in accordance with Rule 4(j) or Rule 4(j5) of the North Carolina Rules of Civil Procedure. The persons entitled to service of the notice of intent and a copy of the unsigned proposed curative affidavit pursuant to this subsection are as follows:

(1)        All parties to the instrument that is the subject of the curative affidavit. In the case of a deed of trust, the parties to the instrument shall include the grantor or trustor named in the deed of trust, the beneficiary of record, and any assignee of the beneficiary known to the party filing the curative affidavit or its authorized attorney, but need not include the trustee named in the deed of trust or any substitute trustee.

(2)        Any current record mortgagee, record beneficiary, record assignee, or record secured party in any mortgage, deed of trust, assignment of leases, rents or profits, UCC fixture filing, or other recorded instrument of title that may be adversely affected by the recording of the curative affidavit. For the purposes of this subdivision, "instruments of title" means any instrument, recorded after the date of recordation of the instrument that is the subject of the curative affidavit, that affects title or constitutes the chain of title to real property, including, but not limited to, all deeds, wills, estate documents evidencing transfer of title, plats, surveys, easements, rights-of-way, outstanding mortgages and deeds of trust, judicial orders or decrees, and documents evidencing intestate succession.

(3)        The current record owner of the real property.

(4)        The attorney who prepared the instrument that is the subject of the curative affidavit, if known.

(5)        Any title insurance company, if applicable and known, and title insurance agent, if applicable and known, that (i) issued a policy of title insurance covering the subject property in the transaction in which the error occurred or in any subsequent transaction or (ii) proposes to issue a policy of title insurance in reliance on the proposed curative affidavit.

(6)        The current record owners of all adjoining properties that may be adversely affected by the recording of the curative affidavit, the current record holders of any mineral or timber rights that may be adversely affected by the recording of the curative affidavit, and the record holders of any easement rights that may be adversely affected by the recording of the curative affidavit.

(d)       Each person served with the notice of intent and a copy of the unsigned proposed curative affidavit described in subsection (c) of this section that wishes to object to the recordation of the proposed curative affidavit or dispute the facts recited in the proposed curative affidavit must do so in a writing sent in any manner provided for under subsection (e) of this section to the authorized attorney within 30 days after the service of the documents upon that person. The authorized attorney may sign and record the proposed curative affidavit at any time after more than 45 days have elapsed since the last person to be served was served with the notice of intent and a copy of the unsigned proposed curative affidavit. However, the authorized attorney may not record the proposed curative affidavit if, at any time before recording the proposed curative affidavit, the authorized attorney receives a written objection to the recordation of the proposed curative affidavit or a written statement disputing the facts recited in the proposed curative affidavit from any person served with the notice of intent and a copy of the unsigned proposed curative affidavit.

(e)        In complying with any requirement for objecting to the recordation of the proposed curative affidavit or disputing the facts recited in the proposed curative affidavit pursuant to this section, the objection or document disputing the facts must be addressed to the authorized attorney and shall be delivered by at least one of the following methods:

(1)        Delivering a copy to the authorized attorney by handing it to the authorized attorney, or by leaving it at the authorized attorney's office with a partner or employee of the authorized attorney.

(2)        Mailing a copy to the authorized attorney's mailing address provided in the notice of intent.

(3)        Sending a copy by facsimile to the authorized attorney's facsimile number provided in the notice of intent, as evidenced by a facsimile receipt confirmation.

(4)        Electronic mail addressed to the authorized attorney's e-mail address provided in the notice of intent.

(5)        Depositing a copy prepaid with a designated delivery service authorized pursuant to 26 U.S.C. § 7502(f)(2) addressed to the authorized attorney's mailing address provided in the notice of intent.

(f)        An affidavit is sufficient as a curative affidavit if it does all of the following:

(1)        Contains a statement that the curative affidavit should be indexed as a "subsequent instrument" pursuant to G.S. 161-14.1.

(2)        Contains a statement that the curative affidavit is recorded pursuant to this section to correct an obvious description error contained in a previously recorded instrument.

(3)        Contains a statement that the affiant is an attorney licensed to practice law in North Carolina and is an authorized attorney pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section.

(4)        Identifies each instrument subject to the curative affidavit by stating the title of the instrument, the parties to the instrument, and the recording data for the instrument.

(5)        Identifies the obvious description error contained in each instrument subject to the curative affidavit.

(6)        Corrects the obvious description error by stating the correct property description.

(7)        Contains a statement that the affiant served a copy of the notice of intent required by subsection (c) of this section and a copy of the unsigned proposed curative affidavit on all persons entitled to notice pursuant to subsection (c) of this section and that service on each such person was properly effected in a manner prescribed for the service of a summons in accordance with Rule 4(j) or Rule 4(j5) of the North Carolina Rules of Civil Procedure.

(8)        Contains a statement that more than 45 days have elapsed since the last person to be served was served, and that before signing and recording the curative affidavit, the affiant did not receive from any person so served any written objection to the recordation of the curative affidavit or any written statement disputing the facts recited in the curative affidavit.

(9)        Provides the name, telephone number, e-mail address (if available), facsimile number (if available), and mailing address of the affiant.

(10)      Is signed and sworn to or affirmed by the authorized attorney as affiant before a notary public, with an appropriate jurat completed by the notary public that conforms to the requirements of Chapter 10B of the General Statutes.

(g)        A curative affidavit recorded pursuant to this section in the office of the register of deeds in the county where the real property is located shall operate as a correction of the instrument being corrected that relates back to, and is effective as of, the date the instrument being corrected was originally recorded in the office of the register of deeds, with the same effect as if the description of the property was correct when the instrument was first recorded, and all parties to the instrument being corrected shall be bound by the terms contained in the recorded curative affidavit and the instrument being corrected.

(h)        Upon payment of the appropriate recordation fee, the register of deeds shall accept a curative affidavit for recording unless the curative affidavit (i) is submitted by a method or in a medium not authorized for registration by the register of deeds under applicable law, (ii) is not signed by the affiant and sworn to or affirmed as required by law for an affidavit or affirmation, or (iii) lacks a proper jurat. A copy of the previously recorded instrument to which the curative affidavit applies may be attached to or recorded with the curative affidavit and need not be a certified copy. The register of deeds shall not be required to verify or make inquiry concerning (i) the truth of the matters stated in any curative affidavit or (ii) the authority of the person executing any curative affidavit to do so. The register of deeds shall index the curative affidavit in the name of the affiant and in the names of the various parties, other than a trustee or substitute trustee named in a deed of trust, to each instrument being corrected as both grantees and grantors, irrespective of their designation in the instrument being corrected. The costs associated with the recording of a curative affidavit pursuant to this section shall be paid by the party submitting the affidavit to the register of deeds.

(i)         A curative affidavit recorded in compliance with this section shall be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein. Any person who wrongfully or erroneously records a curative affidavit is liable for actual damages sustained by any party as a result of the recordation, including reasonable attorneys' fees and costs.

(j)         The remedies prescribed by this section are not exclusive and do not abrogate any rights or remedies otherwise available under the laws of this State, including any rights or remedies under G.S. 47-36.1.

(k)        No particular phrasing is required for a curative affidavit. A curative affidavit in substantially the following form, when properly completed, is sufficient to satisfy the requirements of subsection (f) of this section:

"Curative Affidavit

This curative affidavit should be indexed as a "subsequent instrument" pursuant to G.S. 161-14.1.

I, ________________________, certify as follows:

1.         This curative affidavit is recorded pursuant to G.S. 47-36.2 to correct an obvious description error contained in a previously recorded instrument.

2.         I am an attorney licensed to practice law in North Carolina. I am an "authorized attorney" as defined in G.S. 47-36.2(a)(1).

3.         The instrument or instruments containing an obvious description error requiring correction are identified as follows:

Insert here the following information regarding each instrument to be corrected: the title of the instrument, the parties to the instrument, and the recording data for the instrument.

4.         The obvious description error contained in the instrument(s) to be corrected is identified or described as follows:

Insert here the erroneous description that requires correction.

5.         The erroneous property description is corrected to read as follows:

Insert here the correct description of the real property.

6.         I have served a copy of a notice of my intent to sign and record this curative affidavit and a copy of this curative affidavit, unsigned, on all persons entitled to notice pursuant to G.S. 47-36.2(c). Service on each such person was properly effected in a manner prescribed for the service of a summons in accordance with Rule 4(j) or Rule 4(j5) of the North Carolina Rules of Civil Procedure, and more than 45 days have elapsed since the last person to be served was served. By signing and recording this affidavit I certify that I did not receive from any person so served any written objection to the recordation of this curative affidavit or any written statement disputing the facts recited in this curative affidavit.

7.         My contact information is as follows:

Insert here the affiant's name, telephone number, email address (if available), facsimile number (if available), and mailing address.

Date: ____________________

 

            _______________________________________

                                                                                                Signature of Affiant

 

COUNTY OF _____________, STATE OF _______________

The foregoing curative affidavit was sworn to or affirmed and subscribed before me this day by __________________________.

 

Date: _____________________

            _______________________________________

                                                                                                Signature of Notary Public

Official Seal

                                                                           __________________________, Notary Public

                                                                              Print or Type Notary's Name

 

            My commission expires: _________________"

 

(l)         The form of the notice of intent to be given as described in subsection (c) of this section shall be substantially as follows (including capitalization and bold typeface as shown):

"NOTICE OF INTENT TO CORRECT AN OBVIOUS DESCRIPTION ERROR

 

This is an important legal document that requires your immediate attention. Your property rights may be affected, and you may need to respond to this notice in writing.

 

I am an attorney licensed to practice law in North Carolina. My contact information is as follows:

Insert the name, telephone number, email address (if available), facsimile number (if available), and mailing address of the authorized attorney issuing the notice.

 

I have discovered or have been advised of an error in the description of real property contained in one or more instruments recorded as part of a real estate-related transaction. A copy of a proposed Curative Affidavit accompanies this notice. The proposed Curative Affidavit identifies the previously recorded instrument or instruments that contain the description errors that I plan to correct, the description error or errors that require correction, and the correct description of the real property. If I sign and record the proposed Curative Affidavit, it will have the legal effect of correcting the erroneous property description in the listed instrument or instruments that contain the description errors.

Real property you own may be affected if I correct the erroneous description of the real property in the instrument or instruments identified in the proposed Curative Affidavit. You should consult with your attorney and your title insurance company, if known, promptly to determine whether and the extent to which my correction of the legal description in the instrument or instruments that need to be corrected will impact your property or property rights.

IF YOU WISH TO OBJECT TO MY SIGNING AND RECORDING THE PROPOSED CURATIVE AFFIDAVIT OR DISPUTE THE FACTS RECITED IN THE PROPOSED CURATIVE AFFIDAVIT, YOU MUST DO SO IN A WRITING SENT OR DELIVERED TO ME WITHIN 30 DAYS AFTER THE DATE YOU WERE SERVED WITH THIS NOTICE AND THE PROPOSED CURATIVE AFFIDAVIT.

Your writing must be sent or delivered to me by one of the following methods:

(1)        Delivering a copy by handing it to me or by leaving it at my office with a partner or employee of mine.

(2)        Mailing a copy to me at the mailing address provided in this notice of intent.

(3)        Sending a copy by facsimile to my facsimile number, if provided in this notice of intent, as evidenced by a facsimile receipt confirmation.

(4)        Electronic mail sent to my e-mail address, if provided in this notice of intent.

(5)        Depositing a copy prepaid with a designated delivery service authorized pursuant to 26 U.S.C. § 7502(f)(2) addressed to the mailing address provided in this notice of intent.

I am not permitted to sign or record the Curative Affidavit if, at any time before I actually sign and record it, I receive a written objection to my signing and recording the Curative Affidavit or a written statement disputing the facts contained in the Curative Affidavit from any person served with this notice and a copy of the unsigned proposed Curative Affidavit. However, assuming I do not receive any such objection or statement disputing the facts, Section 47-36.2 of the North Carolina General Statutes permits me to sign and record the Curative Affidavit at any time after more than 45 days have elapsed since the last person to be served was served with this notice and a copy of the unsigned proposed Curative Affidavit, and I intend to do so.

If you object to my signing and recording the Curative Affidavit or dispute the facts recited in the proposed Curative Affidavit, you need to send or deliver your written objection or written statement disputing the facts recited in the proposed Curative Affidavit to me promptly using one of the methods described above. While I encourage you to call me if you have questions, your telephone call will not be sufficient - you must write to me if you dispute the facts recited in the proposed Curative Affidavit or object to my signing and recording the Curative Affidavit.

 

Date: ______________________

            ________________________________

                                                                                                Signature of authorized attorney"

 

(m)       Nothing in this section requires that a curative affidavit be attached to an original or certified copy of a previously recorded instrument that is unchanged but rerecorded. Nothing in this section requires that a curative affidavit be attached to a copy of a previously recorded instrument that includes identified corrections or an original execution by a party or parties of the corrected instrument after the original recording with proof or acknowledgment of their execution of the correction of the instrument.

(n)        The period prescribed for the commencement of an action contesting the validity or efficacy of a curative affidavit recorded under this statute shall be one year from the date of recordation of the curative affidavit. This subsection does not apply to an action for damages sustained by any party as a result of the wrongful or erroneous recordation of a curative affidavit as provided in subsection (i) of this section.  (2017-110, s. 2.)

 

 

Article 3.

Forms of Acknowledgment, Probate and Order of Registration.

§ 47-37: Repealed by Session Laws 2005-123, s. 3, effective October 1, 2005.

 

§ 47-37.1.  Other forms of proof.

(a)        The proof and acknowledgment forms set forth in this Article are not exclusive. Without regard to whether an instrument presented for registration was signed by an individual acting in his or her own right or by an individual acting in a representative or fiduciary capacity, a notarial certificate that complies with the provisions of Part 6 of Article 1 of Chapter 10B shall be deemed a sufficient form of probate or acknowledgment for purposes of this Chapter. Use of a notarial certificate that satisfies the requirements of Part 6 of Article 1 of Chapter 10B shall not be grounds for a register of deeds to refuse to accept a record for registration.

(b)        When an instrument presented for registration purports to be signed by an individual in a representative or fiduciary capacity, the acknowledgment or proof of that individual's signature may:

(1)        State that the individual signed the instrument in a representative or fiduciary capacity.

(2)        State that the individual who signed the instrument in a representative or fiduciary capacity had due authority to do so.

(3)        Identify the represented person or the fiduciary capacity.

(c)        This section relates only to the form of proof or acknowledgment. The capacity and authority of the individual who signs an instrument presented for registration are governed by other provisions of law.

(d)       This section applies to proofs and acknowledgments made before, on, or after December 1, 2005. (2005-391, s. 9; 2006-59, s. 27.)

 

§ 47-38.  Acknowledgment by grantor.

When properly completed, a certificate in substantially the following form may be used and shall be sufficient under the law of this State to satisfy the requirements for a notarial certificate for one or more individuals, acting in his, her, or their own right or, whether or not so stated in the notarial certificate, in a representative or fiduciary capacity, including one or more individuals acting on behalf of an unincorporated association, as an officer or director of a corporation, as a partner of a general or limited partnership, as a manager or member of a limited liability company, as the trustee of a trust, as the personal representative of a decedent's estate, as an agent or attorney in fact for another, as the guardian of a minor or an incompetent, or as a public official. The authorization of the form in this section does not preclude the use of other forms. This section applies to notarial certificates made before, on, and after December 1, 2005.

North Carolina, ______________ County.

I (here give the name of the official and his official title), do hereby certify that (here give the name of the individual whose acknowledgment is being taken) personally appeared before me this day and acknowledged the due execution of the foregoing instrument. Witness my hand and (where an official seal is required by law) official seal this the ____________ day of _____ (year).

(Official seal.)

                                                                        ________________________________________

                                                                                                  (Signature of officer.)

                                                                                                 (Title)

(Rev., s. 1002; C.S., s. 3323; 1945, c. 73, s. 13; 1977, c. 375, s. 12; 2006-59, s. 28.)

 

§ 47-39.  Repealed by Session Laws 1977, c. 375, s. 16, effective January 1, 1978.

 

§ 47-40.  Husband's acknowledgment and wife's acknowledgment before the same officer.

Where the instrument is acknowledged by both husband and wife or by other grantor before the same officer the form of acknowledgment shall be in substance as follows:

I (here give name of official and his official title), do hereby certify that (here give names of the grantors whose acknowledgment is  being taken) personally appeared before me this day and acknowledged the due execution of the foregoing (or annexed) instrument.

 (1899, c. 235, s. 8; 1901, c. 299; Rev., s. 1004; C.S., s. 3325; 1945, c. 73, s. 15.)

 

§ 47-41:  Repealed by Session Laws 1991, c.  647, s. 3.

 

§ 47-41.01.  Corporate conveyances.

(a)        The following forms of probate for deeds and other conveyances executed by a corporation shall be deemed sufficient, but shall not exclude other forms of probate which would be deemed sufficient in law.

(b)        If the deed or other instrument is executed by an official of the corporation, signing the name of the corporation by him in his official capacity, or any other agent authorized by resolution pursuant to G.S. 47-18.3(e), is sealed with its common or corporate seal, and is attested by another person who is an attesting official of the corporation, the following form of acknowledgment is sufficient:

____________________________________

(State and county, or other

description of place where

acknowledgment is taken)

I,_______________________________ ,           _______________________________________ ,

(Name of officer taking                                                   (Official title of officer

acknowledgment)                                                            taking acknowledgment)

certify that ___________________________ personally came before

(Name of attesting official)

me this day and acknowledged that he (or she) is ________________________

(Title of attesting official)

of_____________________, a corporation, and that by authority duly

(Name of corporation)

given and as the act of the corporation, the foregoing instrument was signed in its name by its__________________________,

(Title of official)

sealed with its corporate seal, and attested by himself (or herself) as its __________________________

(Title of attesting official)

Witness my hand and official seal, this the _______ day of

____________,

(Month)

____________

(Year)

___________________________________________

(Signature of officer taking acknowledgment)

(Official seal, if officer taking

acknowledgment has one)

My commission expires _____________________________________

(Date of expiration of commission as

notary public)

(c)        If the deed or other instrument is executed by an official of the corporation, signing the name of the corporation in his official capacity, or any other agent authorized by resolution pursuant to G.S. 47-18.3(e) the following form of acknowledgment is sufficient:

(State and county, or other

description of place where

acknowledgment is taken)

I,_______________________ ,                      _____________________________,

(Name of officer taking                                         (Official title of officer

acknowledgment)                                                   taking acknowledgment)

certify that _______________________ personally came before

(Name of official)

me this day and acknowledged that he (or she) is _____________________

(Title of official)

of________________________, a corporation, and that he/she, as

_________________________, being authorized to do so, executed the

(Title of official)

foregoing on behalf of the corporation.

Witness my hand and official seal, this the _______ day of

____________,

(Month)

____________

(Year)

____________________________________________

(Signature of officer taking acknowledgment)

(Official seal, if officer taking

acknowledgment has one)

My commission expires _____________________________________

(Date of expiration of commission as

notary public)

(d)       For purposes of this section:

(1)        The words "a corporation" following the blank for the name of the corporation may be omitted when the name of the corporation ends with the word "Corporation" or "Incorporated."

(2)        The words "My commission expires" and the date of expiration of the notary public's commission may be omitted except when a notary public is the officer taking the acknowledgment. The fact that these words and this date may be located in a position on the form different from the position indicated in this subsection does not by itself invalidate the form.

(3)        The phrase "and official seal" and the seal itself may be omitted when the officer taking the acknowledgment has no seal or when such officer is the clerk, assistant clerk, or deputy clerk of the superior court of the county in which the deed or other instrument acknowledged is to be registered.

(4)        The official of the corporation is the corporation's chairman, president, chief executive officer, a vice-president or an assistant vice-president, treasurer, or chief financial officer, or any other agent authorized by resolution pursuant to G.S. 47-18.3(e).

(5)        The attesting official of the corporation is the corporation's secretary or assistant secretary, trust officer, assistant trust officer, associate trust officer, or in the case of a bank, its secretary, assistant secretary, cashier or assistant cashier.

(6)        The phrase "sealed with its corporate seal" may be omitted if the seal of the corporation has not been affixed to the instrument being acknowledged.

(e)        The forms of probate set forth in this section may be modified and adopted for use in the probate of deeds and other conveyances and instruments executed by entities other than corporations, including general and limited partnerships, limited liability companies, trusts, and unincorporated associations. This subsection applies to notarial certificates and forms of probate made before, on, or after December 1, 2005. (1991, c. 647, s. 4; 1995 (Reg. Sess., 1996), c. 742, s. 18; 1999-221, s. 1; 2006-59, s. 29.)

 

§ 47-41.02.  Other forms of probate for corporate conveyances.

(a)        The following forms of probate for deeds and other conveyances executed by a corporation shall also be deemed sufficient but shall not exclude other forms of probate which would be deemed sufficient in law.

(b)        If the instrument is executed by the president or presiding member or trustee and two other members of the corporation, and sealed with the common seal, the following form shall be sufficient:

North Carolina, ____________________ County.

This ______ day of ________ A.D.________, personally came before me (here give the name and official title of the officer who signs this certificate) A.B. (here give the name of the subscribing witness), who, being by me duly sworn, says that he knows the common seal of the (here give the name of the corporation), and is also acquainted with C.D., who is the president (or presiding member or trustee), and also with E.F. and G.H., two other members of said corporation; and that he, the said A.B., saw the said president (or presiding member or trustee) and the two said other members sign the said instrument, and saw the said president (or presiding member or trustee) affix the said common seal of said corporation thereto, and that he, the said subscribing witness, signed his name as such subscribing witness thereto in their presence. Witness my hand and (when an official seal is required by law) official seal, this ____ day of ______ (year).

(Official seal.)

                                                                                    ____________________________________

                                                                                    (Signature of officer.)

(c)        If the deed or other instrument is executed by the president, presiding member or trustee of the corporation, and sealed with its common seal, and attested by its secretary or assistant secretary, either of the following forms of proof and certificate thereof shall be deemed sufficient:

North Carolina, ____________________ County.

This _________ day of___________, A.D.___________, personally came before me (here give name and official title of the officer who signs the certificate) A.B. (here give the name of the attesting secretary or assistant secretary), who, being by me duly sworn, says that he knows the common seal of (here give the name of the corporation), and is acquainted with C.D., who is the president of said corporation, and that he, the said A.B., is the secretary (or assistant secretary) of the said corporation, and saw the said president sign the foregoing (or annexed) instrument, and saw the said common seal of said corporation affixed to said instrument by said president (or that he, the said A.B., secretary or assistant secretary as aforesaid, affixed said seal to said instrument), and that he, the said A.B., signed his name in attestation of the execution of said instrument in the presence of said president of said corporation.  Witness my hand and (when an official seal is required by law) official seal, this the ___________ day of ____________ (year).

(Official seal.)

                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                   (Signature of officer.)

North Carolina, ____________________ County.

This is to certify that on the __________ day of ___________, ________, before me personally came ___________ (president, vice-president, secretary or assistant secretary, as the case may be), with whom I am personally acquainted, who, being by me duly sworn, says that _________ is the president (or vice-president), and __________ is the secretary (or assistant secretary) of the________, the corporation described in and which executed the foregoing instrument; that he knows the common seal of said corporation; that the seal affixed to the foregoing instrument is said common seal, and the name of the corporation was subscribed thereto by the said president (or vice-president), and that said president (or vice-president) and secretary (or assistant secretary) subscribed their names thereto, and said common seal was affixed, all by order of the board of directors of said corporation, and that the said instrument is the act and deed of said corporation.  Witness my hand and (when an official seal is required by law) official seal, this the _________ day of __________ (year).

(Official seal.)

                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                   (Signature of officer.)

(d)       If the deed or other instrument is executed by the signature of the president, vice-president, presiding member or trustee of the corporation, and sealed with its common seal and attested by its secretary or assistant secretary, the following form of proof and certificate thereof shall be deemed sufficient:

This ____ day of ____, A.D. ____, personally came before me (here give name and official title of officer who signs the certificate) A.B., who, being by me duly sworn, says that he is president (vice-president, presiding member or trustee) of the ____ Company, and that the seal affixed to the foregoing (or annexed) instrument in writing is the corporate seal of said company, and that said writing was signed and sealed by him in behalf of said corporation by its authority duly given. And the said A.B. acknowledged the said writing to be the act and deed of said corporation.

(Official seal.)

                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                   (Signature of officer.)

(e)        All corporate conveyances probated and recorded prior to February 14, 1939, wherein the same was attested by the assistant secretary, instead of the secretary, and otherwise regular, are hereby validated as if attested by the secretary of the corporation.

(f)        The following forms of probate for contracts in writing for the purchase of personal property by corporations providing for a lien on the property or the retention of a title thereto by the vendor as security for the purchase price or any part thereof, or chattel mortgages, chattel deeds of trust, and conditional sales of personal property executed by a corporation shall be deemed sufficient but shall not exclude other forms of probate which would be deemed sufficient in law:

                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                   (Signature of officer.)

(g)        All deeds and other conveyances executed on or before April 12, 1974, by the president, any vice-president, assistant vice-president, manager, comptroller, treasurer, assistant treasurer, trust officer or assistant trust officer, or chairman or vice-chairman of a corporation are hereby validated to the extent that such deeds or other conveyances were otherwise properly executed, probated, and recorded.

(h)        The forms of probate set forth in this section may be modified and adopted for use in the probate of deeds and other conveyances and instruments executed by entities other than corporations, including general and limited partnership, limited liability companies, trusts, and unincorporated associations. This subsection applies to notarial certificates and forms of probate made before, on, or after December 1, 2005. (1991, c. 647, s. 5; 1991 (Reg. Sess., 1992), c. 1030, s. 14; 1999-456, s. 59; 2006-59, s. 30.)

 

§ 47-41.1.  Corporate seal.

All documents, including but not limited to deeds, deeds of trust, and mortgages, required or permitted by law to be executed by corporations, shall be legally valid and binding when a legible corporate stamp which is a facsimile of its seal is used in lieu of an imprinted or embossed corporate seal. (1971, c. 340, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-41.2.  Technical defects.

(a)        Technical defects, including technical defects under G.S. 10B-68, and errors or omissions in a form of probate or other notarial certificate, shall not affect the sufficiency, validity, or enforceability of the form of probate or the notarial certificate or the related instrument or document. A register of deeds may not refuse to accept an instrument or document for registration because of technical defects, errors, or omissions in a form of probate or other notarial certificate.

(b)        This section does not apply to the requirements for registration contained in G.S. 47-14(a) and a register of deeds shall not accept for registration an instrument that does not comply with the requirements of G.S. 47-14(a).  (2006-59, s. 31; 2006-199, s. 3; 2013-204, s. 1.17.)

 

§ 47-42.  Attestation of bank conveyances by secretary or cashier.

(a)        Repealed by Session Laws 2002-26, s. 1.

(b)        All deeds and conveyances executed prior to February 14, 1939, by banking corporations, where the cashier of said banking corporation has attested said instruments, which deeds and conveyances are otherwise regular, are hereby validated.

(c)        All deeds and conveyances executed by a banking corporation on or after October 1, 1999, that complied with G.S. 47-18.3 are hereby validated. (1939, c. 20, s. 21/2; 1957, c. 783, s. 4; 2002-26, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-43.  Form of certificate of acknowledgment of instrument executed by attorney-in-fact.

When an instrument purports to be signed by parties acting through another by virtue of the execution of a power of attorney, the following form of certificate shall be deemed sufficient, but shall not exclude other forms which would be deemed sufficient in law:

North Carolina, __________________ County.

I (here give name of the official and his official title), do hereby certify that (here give name of attorney-in-fact), attorney-in-fact for (here give names of parties who executed the instrument through attorney-in-fact), personally appeared before me this day, and being by me duly sworn, says that he executed the foregoing and annexed instrument for and in behalf of (here give names of parties who executed the instrument through attorney-in-fact), and that his authority to execute and acknowledge said instrument is contained in an instrument duly executed, acknowledged, and recorded in the office of (here insert name of official in whose office power of attorney is recorded, and the county and state of recordation), on the (day of month, month, and year of recordation), and that this instrument was executed under and by virtue of the authority given by said instrument granting him power of attorney; that the said (here give name of attorney-in-fact) acknowledged the due execution of the foregoing and annexed instrument for the purposes therein expressed for and in behalf of the said (here give names of parties who executed the instrument through attorney-in-fact).

WITNESS my hand and official seal, this ______ day of____________, (year) ____

(Official seal.)

                                                                                    ____________________________________

                                                                                                      Signature of Officer

 (1941, c. 238.)

 

§ 47-43.1.  Execution and acknowledgment of instruments by attorneys or attorneys-in-fact.

When an instrument purports to be executed by parties acting through another by virtue of a power of attorney, it shall be sufficient if the attorney or agent signs such instrument either in the name of the principal by the attorney or agent or signs as attorney or agent for the principal; and if such instrument purports to be under seal, the seal of the agent shall be sufficient.  (1949, c. 66, s. 1; 2017-153, s. 2.3.)

 

§ 47-43.2.  Officer's certificate upon proof of instrument by subscribing witness.

When the execution of an instrument is proved by a subscribing witness as provided by G.S. 47-12, the certificate required by G.S. 47-13.1 shall be in substantially the following form:

STATE OF______________________________________

                                             (Name of state)

_______________________________________COUNTY

I, ______________________________, a ___________________________________

         (Name of officer taking proof)                       (Official title of officer taking proof)

of _______________________COUNTY, ___________________________, certify that

                                                                                          (Name of state)

_______________________________________ personally appeared before me this day,

                  (Name of subscribing witness)

and being duly sworn, stated that in his presence ________________________________

                                                                                                         (Name of maker)

(signed the foregoing instrument) (acknowledged the execution of the foregoing instrument.) (Strike out the words not applicable.)

WITNESS my hand and official seal, this the __________ day of________________,

                                                                                                                           (Month)

________

(Year)

                                                                        __________________________________________

                                                                                 (Signature of officer taking proof)

                                                                        __________________________________________

                                                                                 (Official title of officer taking proof)

My commission expires ____________________________________________________

                                                                  (Date of expiration of officer's commission)

Provided, however, that when instruments have been recorded upon proof of execution of the instrument by certificate of a judicial officer, showing that execution was proven by oath and examination of the subscribing witness, the date of such examination, and the signature of the officer taking the proof, such proof of execution shall be deemed sufficient on all instruments filed for registration prior to March 15, 1961. (1951, c. 379, s. 3; 1953, c. 1078, s. 3; 1955, c. 1345, s. 6; 1961, c. 237; 1999-456, s. 59.)

 

§ 47-43.3.  Officer's certificate upon proof of instrument by proof of signature of maker.

When the execution of an instrument is proved by proof of the signature of the maker as provided by G.S. 47-12.1 or as provided by G.S. 47-13, the certificate required by G.S. 47-13.1 shall be in substantially the following form:

 

STATE OF______________________________________________

(Name of state)

_________________________________________ COUNTY

I, _______________________________, a __________________________________

                                      (Name of officer taking proof)                    (Official title of officer taking proof)

of___________________ COUNTY, _______________________________, certify that

                                                                                       (Name of state)

_______________________________________ personally appeared before me this day,

                     (Name of person familiar with

                              maker's handwriting)

and being duly sworn, stated that he knows the handwriting of______________________

                                                                                                                  (Name of maker)

and that the signature to the foregoing instrument is the signature of _________________

                                                                                                                        (Name of maker)

WITNESS my hand and official seal, this the ____ day of _________________, ____

                                                                                                                  (Month)                 (Year)

                                                                        __________________________________________

                                                                              (Signature of officer taking proof)

                                                                        __________________________________________

                                                                              (Official title of officer taking proof)

My commission expires _______________________________________________________

                                                               (Date of expiration of officer's commission)

 (1951, c. 379, s. 3; 1999-456, s. 59.)

 

§ 47-43.4.  Officer's certificate upon proof of instrument by proof of signature of subscribing witness.

When the execution of an instrument is proved by proof of the signature of a subscribing witness as provided by G.S. 47-12.1, the certificate required by G.S. 47-13.1 shall be in substantially the following form:

STATE OF________________________________________

                                          (Name of state)

_________________________________________ COUNTY

I, ____________________________, a ______________________________________

               (Name of officer taking proof)                    (Official title of  officer taking proof)

of ___________________ COUNTY, _______________________________, certify that

                                                                                             (Name of state)

____________________________________ personally appeared before me this day, and

            (Name of person familiar with

         handwriting of subscribing witness)

being duly sworn, stated that he knows the handwriting of ________________________,

                                                                                                      (Name of subscribing witness)

and that the signature of __________________________ as a subscribing witness to the

                                             (Name of subscribing witness)

foregoing instrument is the signature of _______________________________________

                                                                                       (Name of subscribing witness)

WITNESS my hand and official seal, this the ____ day of ______________, ________

                                                                                                               (Month)                 (Year)    

                                                         _________________________________________________

                                                               (Signature of officer taking proof)

                                                         _________________________________________________

                                                               (Official title of officer taking proof)

My commission expires _________________________________________________

                                                               (Date of expiration of officer's commission)

 (1951, c. 379, s. 3; 1999-456, s. 59.)

 

§ 47-44.  Clerk's certificate upon probate by justice of peace or magistrate.

When the proof or acknowledgment of any instrument is had before a justice of the peace of some other state or territory of the  United States, or before a magistrate of this State, but of a county different from that in which the instrument is offered for registration, the form of certificate as to his official position and  signature shall be substantially as follows:

North Carolina _____________ County.

I, A.B. (here give name and official title of a clerk of a court of record), do hereby certify that C.D. (here give the name of the justice of the peace or magistrate taking the proof, etc.), was at the time of signing the foregoing (or annexed) certificate an acting justice of the peace or magistrate in and for the county of ________ and State (or territory) of_______________,

and that his signature thereto is in his own proper handwriting.

In witness whereof, I hereunto set my hand and official seal, this_____ day of______________, A.D. ______

 

(Official seal.)

                                                                                    ____________________________________

                                                                                                       (Signature of officer.)

 (1899, c. 235, s. 8; Rev., s. 1006; C.S., s. 3327; 1971, c. 1185, s. 15.)

 

§ 47-45.  Clerk's certificate upon probate by nonresident official without seal.

When the proof or acknowledgment of any instrument is had before any official of some other state, territory or country and such official has no official seal, then the certificate of such official shall be accompanied by the certificate of a clerk of a court of record of the state, territory or country in which the official taking the proof or acknowledgment resides, of the official position and signature of such official; such certificate of the clerk shall be under his hand and official seal and shall be in substance as follows:

____________County.

I, A.B. (here give name and official title of the clerk of a court of record as provided herein), do hereby certify that C.D. (here give name of the official taking the proof, etc.) was at the time of signing the foregoing (or annexed) certificate (here give the official title of the officer taking proof, etc.) in and for the county of ______ and state of ________ (or other political division of the state, territory or country, as the case may be), and that his signature thereto is in his own proper handwriting.

In witness whereof, I hereunto set my hand and official seal, this ______________day of______________, A.D.______

 

(Official seal.)

                                                                        __________________________________________

                                                                                                (Signature of Clerk.)

 (1899, c. 235, s. 8; Rev., s. 1007; C.S., s. 3328.)

 

§ 47-46: Repealed by Session Laws 2005-123, s. 4, effective October 1, 2005.

 

§ 47-46.1.  Notice of satisfaction of deed of trust, mortgage, or other instrument.

No particular phrasing is required for a notice of satisfaction pursuant to G.S. 45-37(a)(5) as it was prior to October 1, 2005, a satisfaction of a security instrument under G.S. 45-36.10, or a trustee's satisfaction under G.S. 45-36.20. The following form, when properly completed, is sufficient to satisfy the requirements (i) for a notice of satisfaction under G.S. 45-37(a)(5) as it was in effect prior to October 1, 2005, (ii) for a satisfaction under G.S. 45-36.10 if the form is signed and acknowledged by the secured creditor, and (iii) for a trustee's satisfaction under G.S. 45-36.20 if the security instrument is a deed of trust and the form is signed and acknowledged by the trustee:

North Carolina, ____________ County.

I, ____________ (name of trustee or mortgagee), certify that the debt or other obligation in the amount of ________ secured by the (deed of trust)(mortgage)(other instrument) executed by ____________ (grantor)(mortgagor), ____________ (trustee)(leave blank if mortgage), and ____________ (beneficiary)(mortgagee), and recorded in ____________ County at ________ (book and page) was satisfied on ____________ (date of satisfaction).

                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                              (Signature of trustee or mortgagee)

(Acknowledgment before officer authorized to take acknowledgments)

My commission expires ____________ (Date of expiration of official's commission).

(1987, c. 405, s. 2; c. 662, s. 4; 1989, c. 434, s. 2; 2005-123, s. 5; 2006-264, s. 82(a).)

 

§ 47-46.2.  Certificate of satisfaction of deed of trust, mortgage, or other instrument.

No particular phrasing is required for a certification of satisfaction pursuant to G.S. 45-37(a)(6) as it was in effect prior to October 1, 2005, or for a satisfaction of a security instrument under G.S. 45-36.10. The following form, when properly completed, is sufficient to satisfy the requirements (i) for a certificate of satisfaction under G.S. 45-37(a)(6) as it was in effect prior to October 1, 2005, and (ii) for a satisfaction of a security instrument under G.S. 45-36.10 when signed and acknowledged by the secured creditor:

 

CERTIFICATE OF SATISFACTION

North Carolina, ____________ County.

I, ____________ (name of owner of the note or other indebtedness secured by the deed of trust or mortgage), certify that I am the owner of the indebtedness secured by the hereafter described deed of trust or mortgage and that the debt or other obligation in the amount of __________ secured by the (deed of trust)(mortgage)(other instrument) executed by ____________ (grantor)(mortgagor),

____________ (trustee)(leave blank if mortgage), and ______________ (beneficiary)(mortgagee), and recorded in __________ County at ______ (book and page) was satisfied on ____________ (date of satisfaction). I request that this certificate of satisfaction be recorded and the above-referenced security instrument be canceled of record.

                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                              (Signature of owner of note)

[Acknowledgment before officer authorized to take acknowledgments]. (1995, c. 292, s. 3; 2005-123, s. 5; 2006-226, s. 27(a); 2006-264, s. 82(a).)

 

§ 47-46.3.  Affidavit of lost note.

No particular phrasing is required for an affidavit of lost note pursuant to G.S. 45-36(a)(6) as it was in effect prior to October 1, 2005. The following form, when properly completed, is sufficient to satisfy the requirements for an affidavit of lost note under G.S. 45-37(a)(6) as it was in effect prior to October 1, 2005.

 

AFFIDAVIT OF LOST NOTE

[Name of affiant] personally appeared before me in ____________ County, State of

____________, and having been duly sworn (or affirmed) made the following affidavit:

1.         The affiant is the owner of the note or other indebtedness secured by the deed of trust, mortgage, or other instrument executed by __________ (grantor, mortgagor), __________ (trustee), and ____________ (beneficiary, mortgagee), and recorded in __________ County at __________ (book and page); and

2.         The note or other indebtedness has been lost and after the exercise of due diligence cannot be located.

3.         The affiant certifies that all indebtedness secured by the deed of trust, mortgage, or other instrument was satisfied on __________, __________ (date of satisfaction), and the affiant is responsible for cancellation of the same.

____________________

(Signature of affiant)

Sworn to (or affirmed) and subscribed before me this ____ day of ___________,_____.

[Signature and seal of notary public or other official authorized to administer oaths]. (1995, c. 292, s. 4; 1995 (Reg. Sess., 1996), c. 604, s. 2; c. 742, s. 19; 1999-456, s. 59; 2005-123, s. 6.)

 

 

Article 4.

Curative Statutes; Acknowledgments; Probates; Registration.

§ 47-47.  Defective order of registration; "same" for "this instrument".

Where instruments were admitted to registration prior to March 2, 1905, and the clerk's order for the registration used the word "same" in place of "this instrument," the said registrations are good and valid. (1905, c. 344; Rev., s. 1010; C.S., s. 3329.)

 

§ 47-48.  Clerks' and registers of deeds' certificate failing to pass on all prior certificates.

When it appears that the clerk of the superior court, register of deeds, or other officer having the power to probate or certify deeds, in passing upon deeds or other instruments, and the certificates thereto, having more than one certificate of the same or a different date, by other officer or officers taking acknowledgment or probating the same, has in his certificate or order mentioned only one or more of the preceding or foregoing certificates or orders, but not all of them, but has admitted the same deed or other instrument to probate or recordation, it shall be conclusively presumed that all the certificates of said deed or instrument necessary to the admission of same to probate or recordation have been passed upon, and the certificate of said clerk, register of deeds, or other probating or certifying officer shall be deemed sufficient and the probate, certification and recordation of said deed or instrument is hereby made and declared valid for all intents and purposes. The provisions of this section shall apply to all instruments recorded in any county of this State prior to April 1, 2013.  (1917, c. 237; C.S., s. 3330; 1945, c. 808, s. 1; 1965, c. 1001; 1971, c. 11; 1973, c. 1402; 1987, c. 360, s. 2; 2013-204, s. 1.18.)

 

§ 47-49.  Defective certification or adjudication of clerk, etc., admitting to registration.

In all cases where, prior to January 1, 1919, instruments by law required or authorized to be registered, with certificates showing the acknowledgment or proof of execution thereof as required by the laws of the State of North Carolina, have been ordered registered by the clerk of the superior court or other officer qualified to pass upon probates and admit instruments to registration, and actually put upon the books in the office of the register of deeds as if properly proven and ordered to be registered, all such probates and registrations are hereby validated and made as good and sufficient as though such instruments had been in all respects properly proved and recorded, notwithstanding the failure of clerks or other officers  qualified to pass upon the proofs or acknowledgments of instruments and to admit such instruments to registration to adjudge or certify that said instruments were duly proven, and notwithstanding the failure of such officers to adjudge or certify that the certificates of proof or acknowledgments of said instruments were correct or in due form. (1919, c. 248; C.S., s. 3331.)

 

§ 47-50.  Order of registration omitted.

In all cases prior to October 1, 2005, where it appears from the records of the office of the register of deeds of any county in this State that the execution of a deed of conveyance or other instrument by law required or authorized to be registered was duly signed and acknowledged as required by the laws of the State of North Carolina, and the clerk of the superior court of such county or other officer authorized to pass upon acknowledgments and to order registration of instruments has failed either to adjudge the correctness of the acknowledgment or to order the registration thereof, or both, such registrations are hereby validated and the instrument so appearing in the office of the register of deeds of such county shall be effective to the same extent as if the clerk or other authorized officer had properly adjudged the correctness of the acknowledgment and had ordered the registration of the instrument.  (1911, cc. 91, 166; 1913, c. 61; Ex. Sess. 1913, c. 73; 1915, c. 179, s. 1; C.S., s. 3332; 1941, cc. 187, 229; 1949, c. 493; 1957, c. 314; 1961, c. 79; 1981, c. 812; 1993, c. 80, s. 1; 2013-204, s. 1.19.)

 

§ 47-50.1.  Register's certificate omitted.

In all cases prior to October 1, 2005, where it appears from the records of the office of the register of deeds of any county in this State that the execution of a deed of conveyance or other instrument by law required or authorized to be registered was duly signed and acknowledged as required by the laws of this State, and the register of deeds has failed to certify the correctness of the acknowledgment as required by G.S. 47-14(a), the registrations are hereby validated and the instrument so appearing in the office of the register of deeds of that county is effective to the same extent as if the register of deeds had properly certified the correctness of the acknowledgment.  (2004-199, s. 17; 2013-204, s. 1.20.)

 

§ 47-51.  Official deeds omitting seals.

All deeds executed prior to April 1, 2013, by any sheriff, commissioner, receiver, executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, or other officer authorized to execute a deed by virtue of his office or appointment, in which the officer has omitted to affix his seal after his signature, shall not be invalid on account of the omission of such seal.  (1907, c. 807; 1917, c. 69, s. 1; C.S., s. 3333; Ex. Sess. 1924, c. 64; 1941, c. 13; 1955, c. 467, ss. 1, 2; 1959, c. 408; 1971, c. 14; 1973, c. 1207, s. 1; 1983, c. 398, s. 2; 1985, c. 70, s. 2; 1987, c. 277, s. 2; 1989, c. 390, s. 2; 1991, c. 489, s. 2; 2013-204, s. 1.21.)

 

§ 47-52.  Defective acknowledgment on old deeds validated.

The clerk of the superior court may order registered any deed, or other conveyance of land, in all cases where the instrument and probate bears date prior to January 1, 1907, where the acknowledgment, private examination, or other proof of execution, has been taken or had before a notary public residing in the county where the land is situate, where said officer failed to affix his official seal, and where the certificate of said officer appears otherwise to be genuine. (1933, c. 439.)

 

§ 47-53.  Probates omitting official seals, etc.

In all cases where the acknowledgment, private examination, or other proof of the execution of any deed, mortgage, or other instrument authorized or required to be registered has been taken or had by or before any commissioner of affidavits and deeds of this State, or clerk or deputy clerk of a court of record, or notary public of this or any other state, territory, or district, and such deed, mortgage, or other instrument has heretofore been recorded in any county in this State, but such commissioner, clerk, deputy clerk, or notary public has omitted to attach his or her official or notarial seal thereto, or if omitted, to insert his or her name in the body of the certificate, or if omitted, to sign his or her name to such certificate, if the name of such officer appears in the body of said certificate or is signed thereto, or it does not appear of record that such seal was attached to the original deed, mortgage, or other instrument, or such commissioner, clerk, deputy clerk, or notary public has certified the same as under his or her "official seal," or "notarial seal," or words of similar import, and no such seal appears of record or where the officer uses "notarial" in his or her certificate and signature shows that "C.S.C.," or "clerk of superior court," or similar exchange of capacity, and the word "seal" follows the signature, then all such acknowledgments, private examinations or other proofs of such deeds, mortgages, or other instruments, and the registration thereof, are hereby made in all respects valid and binding. The provisions of this section apply to acknowledgments, private examinations, or proofs taken prior to April 1, 2013. Provided, this section does not apply to pending litigation.  (Rev., s. 1012; 1907, cc. 213, 665, 971; 1911, c. 4; 1915, c. 36; C.S., s. 3334; 1929, c. 8, s. 1; 1945, c. 808, s. 2; 1951, c. 1151, s. 1; 1965, c. 500; 1983, c. 398, s. 3; 1985, c. 70, s. 3; 1987, c. 277, s. 3; 1989, c. 390, s. 3; 1991, c. 489, s. 3; 2013-204, s. 1.22.)

 

§ 47-53.1.  Acknowledgment omitting seal of clerk or notary public.

Where any person has taken an acknowledgment as either a notary public or a clerk of a superior court, deputy clerk of a superior court, or assistant clerk of a superior court and has failed to affix his or her seal and this acknowledgment has been otherwise duly probated and recorded then this acknowledgment is hereby declared to be sufficient and valid. This section applies only to those deeds and other instruments acknowledged prior to April 1, 2013.  (1951, c. 1151, s. 1A; 1953, c. 1307; 1963, c. 412; 1975, c. 878; 1983, c. 398, s. 4; 1985, c. 70, s. 4; 1987, c. 277, s. 4; 1989, c. 390, s. 4; 1991, c. 489, s. 4; 2004-199, s. 18; 2013-204, s. 1.23.)

 

§ 47-54.  Registration by register's deputies or clerks.

All registrations of instruments heretofore made in the office of register of deeds of the several counties by the register's deputy or clerk, and signed in the name of the register of deeds by the deputy or clerk, or signed by the deputy in his own name and not in the name of the register of deeds, when such registrations are in all other respects regular, are hereby validated and declared to be of the same force and effect as if signed in the name of the register of deeds by such register. (1911, c. 184, s. 1; C.S., s. 3335; 1953, c. 849; 1963, c. 203.)

 

§ 47-54.1.  Registration by register's assistants or deputies.

All registrations of instruments heretofore made in the office of register of deeds of the several counties by the register's assistant or deputy, and signed in the name of the register of deeds by the assistant or deputy, and initialed by the assistant or deputy, instead of being signed by them as assistant or deputy, when such registrations are in all other respects regular, are hereby validated and declared to be of the same force and effect as if signed by the assistant or deputy in the respective capacity. (1991 (Reg. Sess., 1992), c. 877, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-55.  Before officer in wrong capacity or out of jurisdiction.

All deeds, conveyances, or other instruments permitted by law to be registered in this State, which have been probated or ordered to be registered previous to January 1, 1913, before any officer of this or any other state or country, authorized by law to take acknowledgments or to order registration, where the certificate of the probate or order of registration is sufficient in form, but appears to have been certified by the officer in some capacity other than that in which such officer was authorized to act, or appears to have been made out of the county or district authorized by law, but within the State, and where the instrument with such certificate has been recorded in the proper county, are hereby declared to have been duly proved, probated and recorded, and to be valid. (Rev., ss. 1017, 1030; 1913, c. 125, s. 1; C.S., s. 3336.)

 

§ 47-56.  Before justices of peace, where clerk's certificate or order of registration defective.

In every case where it appears from the record of the office of any register of deeds in this State that a justice of the peace in this State or any other state of the United States, has taken and certified the proof of any instrument required by the law to be registered, or the privy examination of a married woman thereto, and the deed and certificate have been registered prior to the first day of January, 1963, in the county where the lands described in the instrument are located, without a certificate or with a defective certificate of the clerk of the official character of the justice, or as to the genuineness of his signature, or without the order of registration of the clerk, or his adjudication of due probate, or with a defective adjudication thereof, such proofs, certificates and registration are hereby validated. (1907, c. 83, s. 1; C.S., s. 3337; 1951, c. 35; 1963, c. 1014.)

 

§ 47-57.  Probates on proof of handwriting of maker refusing to acknowledge.

All registrations of instruments, prior to February 5, 1897, permitted or required by law to be registered, which were ordered to registration upon proof of the handwriting of the grantor or maker who refused to acknowledge the execution, are hereby validated. (1897, c. 28; Rev., s. 1026; C.S., s. 3338.)

 

§ 47-58.  Before judges of Supreme Court or superior courts or clerks before 1889.

Wherever the judges of the Supreme Court or the superior court, or the clerks or deputy clerks of the superior court, or courts of pleas and quarter sessions, mistaking their powers, have essayed previously to the first day of January, 1889, to take the probate of any instrument required or allowed by law to be registered, and the privy examination of femes covert, whose names are signed to such deeds, and have ordered said deeds to registration, and the same have been registered, all such probates, privy examinations and registrations are validated. (1871-2, c. 200, s. 1; Code, s. 1260; 1889, c. 252; 1891, c. 484; Rev., s. 1009; C.S., s. 3339.)

 

§ 47-59.  Before clerks of inferior courts.

All probates and orders of registration made by and taken before any clerk of any inferior or criminal court prior to the twentieth day of February, 1885, and valid in form and substance, shall be valid and effectual, and all deeds, mortgages or other instruments requiring registration, registered upon such probate and order of registration, shall be valid. This section shall apply only to the counties of Ashe, Beaufort, Bertie, Buncombe, Cumberland, Duplin, Edgecombe, Granville, Greene, Halifax, Hertford, Iredell, Lenoir, Martin, Mecklenburg, New Hanover, Northampton, Robeson and Wayne. This section applies to probates and private examinations taken before the clerks of the criminal court of Buncombe prior to February second, 1893. (1885, cc. 105, 108; 1889, cc. 143, 463; Rev., ss. 1020, 1021; C.S., s. 3340.)

 

§ 47-60.  Order of registration by judge, where clerk party.

All deeds, mortgages or other instruments which prior to the twentieth day of January, 1893, have been probated by a justice of the peace and ordered to registration by a judge of the superior court or justice of the Supreme Court, to which clerks of the superior court are parties, are hereby confirmed, and the probates and orders for registration declared to be valid. (1893, c. 3, s. 2; Rev., s. 1011; C.S., s. 3342.)

 

§ 47-61.  Order of registration by interested clerk.

The probate and registration of all deeds, mortgages and other instruments requiring registration prior to the fifteenth day of January, 1935, to which the clerks of the superior courts are parties, or in which they have an interest, and which have been registered on the order of such clerks or their deputies, or by assistant clerks of  the superior courts, on proof of acknowledgment taken before such clerks, assistant clerks, deputy clerks, justices of the peace or notaries public, be, and the same are declared valid. (1891, c. 102; 1899, c. 258; 1905, c. 427; Rev., s. 1015; 1907, c. 1003, s. 2; Ex. Sess. 1908, c. 105, s. 1; C.S., s. 3343; 1935, c. 235.)

 

§ 47-62.  Probates before interested notaries.

The proof and acknowledgment of instruments required by law to be registered in the office of the register of deeds of a county, and all privy examinations of a feme covert to such instruments made before any notary public on or since March 11, 1907, are hereby declared valid and sufficient, notwithstanding the notary may have been interested as attorney, counsel or otherwise in such instruments. (Ex. Sess. 1908, c. 105, s. 2; C.S., s. 3344.)

 

§ 47-63.  Probates before officer of interested corporation.

In all cases when acknowledgment or proof of any conveyance has been taken before a clerk of superior court, magistrate or notary  public, who was at the time a stockholder or officer in any corporation, bank or other institution which was a party to such instrument, the certificates of such clerk, magistrate, or notary public shall be held valid, and are so declared. (Rev., s. 1015; 1907, c. 1003, s. 1; C.S., s. 3345; 1971, c. 1185, s. 16.)

 

§ 47-64.  Probates before officers, stockholders or directors of corporations.

No acknowledgment or proof of execution, including privy examination of married women, of any deed, mortgage or deed of trust to which instrument a corporation is a party shall be held invalid by reason of the fact that the officer taking such acknowledgment, proof or privy examination was an officer, stockholder, or director in said corporation; but such proofs and acknowledgments and the registration thereof, if in all other respects valid, are declared to be valid. Nor shall the registration of any such instrument ordered to be registered be held invalid by reason of the fact that the clerk or deputy clerk ordering the registration was an officer, stockholder or director in any corporation which is a party to any such instrument.  (Ex. Sess. 1913, c. 41; C.S., s. 3346; 1929, c. 24, s. 1; 1943, c. 135; 1945, c. 860; 2013-204, s. 1.24.)

 

§ 47-65.  Clerk's deeds, where clerk appointed himself to sell.

All deeds made by any clerk of the superior court of any county or his deputy, prior to the first day of January, 1905, in any proceeding before him in which he has appointed himself or his deputy to make the sale of real property or other property are hereby validated. (1911, c. 146, s. 1; C.S., s. 3347.)

 

§ 47-66.  Certificate of wife's "previous" examination.

All probates of deeds, letters of attorney or other instruments requiring registration to which married women were parties, had and taken prior to the fourteenth day of February, 1893, in which probate it appears that such married women were "previously examined" instead of "privately examined," are hereby validated and confirmed. (1893, c. 130; Rev., s. 1016; C.S., s. 3348.)

 

§ 47-67.  Probates of husband and wife in wrong order.

All probates prior to March 6, 1893, of instruments executed by a husband and wife in which the probate as to the husband has been taken before or subsequent to the privy examination of his wife are validated. (1893, c. 293; Rev., s. 1017; C.S., s. 3349.)

 

§ 47-68.  Probates of husband and wife before different officers.

Where, prior to the second day of March, 1895, the probate of a deed or other instrument, executed by husband and wife, has been  taken as to the husband and the wife by different officers having the  power to take probates of deeds, whether both officers reside in this  State or one in this State and the other in another state, or foreign  country, the said probate, in the cases mentioned, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, and all deeds and other instruments required to be registered, and which have been ordered to registration by the proper officer in this State, and upon such probate or probates, and have been registered, shall be taken and considered as duly registered, and the word "probate," as used in this section, shall include privy examination of the wife. (1895, c. 120; Rev., s. 1018; 1907, c. 34, s. 1; C.S., s. 3350.)

 

§ 47-69.  Wife free trader; no examination or husband's assent.

In all cases prior to the twenty-fourth day of September, 1913, where a married woman who was at the time a free trader by her husband's consent has executed and delivered a deed conveying her land, without her privy examination having been taken, and without the written assent of her husband other than his written assent contained in the instrument making her a free trader, such deed shall be valid and effectual to convey her land as if she had been, at the time of the execution and delivery of such deed, a feme sole. This section does not validate such deed where it would affect the title to land or property of purchasers or their grantees or assignees from such married woman and free trader subsequent to the execution of such deed. (Ex. Sess. 1913, c. 54, s. 1; C.S., s. 3351.)

 

§ 47-70.  By president and attested by treasurer under corporate seal.

All deeds and conveyances for lands in this State, made by any corporation of this State, which have heretofore been proved or acknowledged before any notary public in any other state, or before any commissioner of deeds and affidavits for the State of North Carolina in any other state, and sealed with the common seal of the corporation and attested by the treasurer, are hereby ratified and declared to be good and valid deeds for all purposes. Where such deeds have been executed for the corporation by its president and attested, sealed and acknowledged or probated as aforesaid, and the acknowledgment or probate has been duly adjudged sufficient by any deputy clerk and ordered registered, the acknowledgment, probate and registration are ratified, and said deed is declared valid. Such deeds, or certified copies thereof, may be used as evidence of title to the lands therein conveyed in the trial of any suits in any of the courts of this State where the title of said lands shall come in controversy. (1905, c. 307; Rev., s. 1028; C.S., s. 3352.)

 

§ 47-71.  By president and attested by witness before January, 1900.

Any deed or conveyance for land in this State, made prior to January 1, 1900, by the president of any corporation duly chartered under the laws of this State, and attested by a witness, is hereby declared to be a good and valid deed by such corporation for all purposes, and shall be admitted to probate and registration and shall  pass title to the property therein conveyed to the grantee as fully as if said deed were executed according to provisions and forms of law in force in this State at the date of the execution of said deed. (1909,  c. 859, s. 1; C.S., s. 3353.)

 

§ 47-71.1.  Corporate seal omitted prior to January 1, 2000.

Any corporate deed, or conveyance of land in this State, made prior to January 1, 2000, which is defective only because the corporate seal is omitted therefrom is hereby declared to be a good and valid conveyance by such corporation for all purposes and shall be sufficient to pass title to the property therein conveyed as fully as if the said conveyance were executed according to the provisions and forms of law in force in this State at the date of the execution of such conveyance.  (1957, c. 500, s. 1; 1963, c. 1015; 1969, c. 815; 1971, c. 61; 1973, c. 479; 1977, c. 538; 1981, c. 191, s. 1; 1983, c. 398, s. 5; 1985, c. 70, s. 5; 1987, c. 277, s. 5; 1989, c. 390, s. 5; 1991, c. 489, s. 5; 2013-204, s. 1.25.)

 

§ 47-72.  Corporate name not affixed, but signed otherwise prior to April 1, 2013.

In all cases prior to April 1, 2013, where any deed conveying lands purported to be executed by a corporation, but the corporate name was in fact not affixed to said deed, but same was signed by the president and secretary of said corporation, or by the president and two members of the governing body of said corporation, and said deed has been registered in the county where the land conveyed by said deed is located, said defective execution above described shall be and the same is hereby declared to be in all respects valid, and such deed shall be deemed to be in all respects the deed of said corporation.  (1919, c. 53, s. 1; C.S., s. 3354; 1927, c. 126; 1963, c. 1094; 1973, c. 118, s. 1; 2013-204, s. 1.26.)

 

§ 47-73.  Probated and registered on oath of subscribing witness.

In all cases prior to the first day of January, 1919, where any deed conveying lands was executed by a corporation, and said deed was probated and ordered registered upon the oath and examination of a subscribing witness, by the clerk of the superior court of the county  in which the land conveyed by said deed is located, and said deed has  been duly registered by the register of deeds of said county, such probate and order of registration shall be, and the same is hereby, declared to be in all respects valid. (1919, c. 53, s. 2; C.S., s. 3355.)

 

§ 47-74.  Certificate alleging examination of grantor instead of witness.

Wherever any deed of conveyance registered prior to January 1, 1886, purports to have been attested by two witnesses and in the certificate of probate and acknowledgment it is stated that the execution of such deed was proven by the oath and examination of one of the grantors in said deed instead of either of the witnesses named, all such probates and certificates are hereby validated and confirmed, and any such deed shall be taken and considered as duly acknowledged and probated. (1925, c. 84.)

 

§ 47-75.  Proof of corporate articles before officer authorized to probate.

All proofs of articles of agreement for the creation of corporations which were, prior to the eighteenth day of February, 1901, made before any officer who was at that time authorized by the law to take proofs and acknowledgments of deeds and mortgages, are ratified. (1901, c. 170; Rev., s. 1027; C.S., s. 3356.)

 

§ 47-76.  Before officials of wrong state.

In all cases where the acknowledgment, examination and probate of any deed, mortgage, power of attorney or other instrument required or authorized to be registered has been taken before any judge, clerk of a court of record, notary public having a notarial seal, mayor of a city having a seal, or justice of the peace of a state other than the state in which the grantor, maker or subscribing witness resided at the time of the execution, acknowledgment, examination or probate thereof, and such acknowledgment, examination or probate is in other respects according to law, and such instrument has been duly ordered to registration and has been registered, then such acknowledgment, examination, probate and registration are hereby  in all respects made valid and binding. This section applies to probates and acknowledgments of deputy clerks of other states when such probate and acknowledgment has been attested by the official seal of said office and adjudged sufficient and in due form of law by the clerk of the court in the state where the instrument is required to be registered. (1905, c. 505; Rev., s. 1013; C.S., s. 3357.)

 

§ 47-77.  Before notaries and clerks in other states.

All deeds and conveyances made for lands in this State which have, previous to February 15, 1883, been proved before a notary public or clerk of a court of record, or before a court of record, not including mayor's court, of any other state, where such proof has been duly certified by such notary or clerk under his official seal, or the seal of the court, or in accordance with the act of Congress regulating the certifying of records of the courts of one state to another state, or under the seal of such courts, and such deed or conveyance, with the certificate, has been registered in the office of register of deeds in the book of records thereof for the county in which such lands were situate at the time of such registration, are declared to be validly registered, and the proof and registration is adjudged valid. All deeds and conveyances so proved, certified and registered, or certified copies of the same, may be used as evidence of title for the lands on the trial of any suit in any courts where title to the lands come into controversy. (1883, c. 129, ss. 1, 2; Code, ss. 1262, 1263; 1885, c. 11; Rev., ss. 1022, 1023; 1915, c. 213; C.S., s. 3358.)

 

§ 47-78.  Acknowledgment by resident taken out-of-state.

When prior to the ninth day of March, 1895, a deed or mortgage executed by a resident of this State has been proved or acknowledged by the maker thereof before a notary public of any other state of the United States, and has been ordered to be registered by the clerk of the superior court of the county in which the land conveyed is situated, and said deed or mortgage has been registered, such registration is valid. (1895, c. 181; Rev., s. 1019; C.S., s. 3359.)

 

§ 47-79.  Before deputy clerks of courts of other states.

Where any deed or conveyance of lands in this State, executed prior to January 1, 1923, has been acknowledged by the grantor or the privy examination of any married woman has been taken before the deputy clerk of a court of record of any other state, and the certificate of acknowledgment and privy examination is otherwise sufficient under the laws of this State, except that it appears to have been signed in the name of the clerk of said court, by the deputy clerk, and the seal of the court has been affixed thereto, and such certificate has been duly approved by the clerk of the superior court  of this State in the county where the lands conveyed are situated and  the instrument ordered to be recorded, such certificate and probate and the registration made thereon are validated, and the conveyance, if otherwise sufficient, is declared valid. (1913, c. 57, ss. 1, 2; C.S., s. 3360; 1951, c. 1134, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-80.  Sister state probates without Governor's authentication.

In all cases where any deed concerning lands or any power of attorney for the conveyance of the same, or any other instrument required or allowed to be registered, has been, prior to the twenty-ninth day of January, 1901, acknowledged by the grantor therein, or proved and the private examination of any married woman, who was a party thereto, taken according to law, before any judge of a supreme, superior or circuit court of any other state or territory of the United States where the parties to such instrument resided, and the certificate of such judge as to such acknowledgment, probate or private examination, and also the certificate of the secretary of state of said state or territory instead of the Governor thereof (as required by the laws of this State then in force) that the judge, before whom the acknowledgment or probate and private examination were taken, was at the time of taking the same a judge as aforesaid, are attached to said deed, or other instrument, and the said deed or other instrument, having said certificates attached, has been exhibited before the former judge of probate, or the clerk of the superior court of the county in which the property is situated, and such acknowledgment, or probate and private examination have been adjudged by him to be sufficient and said deed or other instrument ordered to be registered and has been registered accordingly, such probate and registration shall be valid. Nothing herein contained affects the rights of third parties who are purchasers for value, without notice, from the grantor in such deed or other instrument. (1901, c. 39; Rev., s. 1014; C.S., s. 3361.)

 

§ 47-81.  Before commissioners of deeds.

Any deed or other instrument permitted by law to be registered, and which has prior to the third day of March, 1913, been proved or acknowledged before a commissioner of deeds, is validated; and its registration is authorized and validated. (1913, c. 39, s. 2; C.S., s. 3362.)

 

§ 47-81.1.  Before commissioner of oaths.

All deeds, mortgages or other instruments required to be registered, which prior to March 5, 1943, have been probated by a commissioner of oaths and ordered registered, are hereby validated and confirmed as properly probated and registered instruments. (1943, c. 471, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-81.2.  Before United States Army, etc., officers, and other service members.

In all cases where instruments and writings have been proved or acknowledged before any commissioned officer of the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard or any officer of the United States Merchant Marine having the rank of lieutenant, senior grade, or higher, such proofs or acknowledgments, where valid in other respects, are hereby ratified, confirmed and declared valid. All proofs or acknowledgments made by any military personnel authorized by the Congress of the United States are hereby ratified, confirmed, and declared valid and shall not require the affixation of a seal where valid in other respects.  (1943, c. 159, s. 2; 2011-183, s. 32; 2013-204, s. 1.27.)

 

§ 47-82.  Foreign probates omitting seals.

In all cases where the acknowledgment, privy examination or other proof of the execution of any instrument authorized or required  to be registered has been taken by or before any ambassador, minister, consul, vice-consul, vice-consul general or commercial agent of the United States in any country beyond the limits of the United States, and such instrument has heretofore been recorded in any county in this State, but the official before whom it was taken has omitted to attach his seal of office, or it does not appear of record that such seal was attached to the instrument, or such official has certified the same as under his "official seal" or seal of his office, or words of similar import, and no such seal appears of record, then all such acknowledgments, privy examinations or other proof of such instruments, and the registration thereof, are hereby made in all respects valid, and such instruments, after the ratification hereof, shall be competent to be read in evidence. (1913, c. 69, s. 1; C.S., s. 3363.)

 

§ 47-83.  Before consuls general.

Any deed or other instrument permitted by law to be registered, and which has prior to the thirteenth day of October, 1913, been proved or acknowledged before a "consul general," is validated; and its registration is authorized and validated. (Ex. Sess. 1913, c. 72, s. 2; C.S., s. 3364.)

 

§ 47-84.  Before vice-consuls and vice-consuls general.

The order for registration by the clerk of the superior court and the registration thereof of all deeds of conveyance and other instruments in any county of this State prior to January 1, 1905, upon the certificate of any vice-consul or vice-consul general of the United States residing in a foreign country, certifying in due form under his name and the official seal of the United States consul or United States consul general of the same place and country where such vice-consul or vice-consul general resided and acted, that he has taken the proof or acknowledgments of the parties to such instruments, together with the privy examinations of married women parties thereto, are hereby, together with such proof and acknowledgments, privy examinations and certificates, validated. (1905, c. 451, s. 2; Rev., s. 1024; C.S., s. 3365.)

 

§ 47-85.  Before masters in chancery.

All probates, acknowledgments, and private examinations of  deeds and conveyances of land heretofore taken before masters in equity or masters in chancery in any other state are declared to be valid, and all registrations of such deeds or conveyances upon such probates, acknowledgments and private examinations, or any of them, are hereby declared to be sufficient. All such deeds and conveyances and registration thereof, and all certified copies of such registrations, shall be received in evidence or otherwise used in the  same manner and with the same force and effect as other deeds and conveyances with probates, acknowledgments, or private examinations made in accordance with provisions of statutes of this State in force at the time and as registrations thereof and certified copies of such registrations. Nothing in this section contained shall have effect to deprive anyone of any legal rights acquired, before its passage, from the grantors in such deeds or conveyances subsequently to their execution, where the deeds or conveyances by which such rights were acquired have been duly acknowledged or probated and registered. (1911, c. 10; C.S., s. 3366.)

 

§ 47-85.1.  Further as to acknowledgments, etc., before masters in chancery.

All probates, acknowledgments and privy examinations of deeds, mortgages and conveyances of land, which prior to January 1, 1948 have been taken before masters in equity or masters in chancery in any other state, are hereby declared to be valid, and all registrations of such deeds, mortgages or conveyances upon such probates, acknowledgments and private examinations, or any of them are hereby declared to be sufficient and valid. All such deeds and conveyances and registration thereof, and all certified copies of such registrations shall be received in evidence or otherwise used in the same manner and with the same force and effect as other deeds, mortgages and conveyances with probates, acknowledgments, or private examinations made in accordance with the provisions of statutes and laws of this State in force at the time, and as registrations thereof and certified copies of such registrations. (1953, c. 1136.)

 

§ 47-86.  Validation of probate of deeds by clerks of courts of record of other states, where official seal is omitted.

In all cases where, prior to the first day of January, 1891, the acknowledgment, privy examination of a married woman, or other proof of the execution of any deed, mortgage, or other instrument authorized to be registered has been taken before a clerk of a court of record in another state, and such clerk has failed or neglected to affix his official seal to his certificate of such acknowledgment, privy examination, or other proof of execution, of such deed, mortgage or other instrument, or where such court had no official seal and no official seal was affixed to such certificate by reason of that fact, and such deed, mortgage, or other instrument has been ordered to registration by the clerk of the superior court of any county in this State and has been registered, the probate of any and every such deed, mortgage, or other instrument authorized to be registered shall be and hereby is to all intents and purposes validated. (1921, c. 15, ss. 1, 2; C.S., s. 3366(a).)

 

§ 47-87.  Validation of probates by different officers of deeds by wife and husband.

In all cases where, prior to the second day of March, 1895, the acknowledgment, privy examination of a married woman, or other proof of the execution of any deed, mortgage, or other instrument, authorized to be registered, executed by husband and wife, has been taken as to the husband and wife in different states and by different  officers having power to take acknowledgments, any and every such acknowledgment, privy examination of a married woman, or other proof of execution, and the probate of any and every such deed, mortgage or other instrument shall be and hereby is, to all intents and purposes validated. (1921, c. 19, ss. 1, 4; C.S., s. 3366(b).)

 

§ 47-88.  Registration without formal order validated.

In all cases where the acknowledgment, privy examination of a married woman, or other proof of the execution of any deed, mortgage or other instrument, authorized to be registered, has been taken before a commissioner in another state appointed by the probate judge of any county of this State, under the provisions of section 20 of Chapter 35 of Battle's Revisal, during the time said Chapter remained in force and effect, and such commissioner has certified to such acknowledgment, privy examination or other proof, and has returned such deed, mortgage or other instrument to said probate judge, with his certificate endorsed thereon, and such deed, mortgage or other instrument, together with such certificate, has been registered, without any adjudication or order of registration by such probate judge, the probate and registration of any and every such deed shall be, and hereby are, to all intents and purposes validated. (1921, c. 19, ss. 2, 4; C.S., s. 3366(c).)

 

§ 47-89.  Same subject.

In all cases where any deed, mortgage or other instrument has heretofore been acknowledged or probated in accordance with the provisions of G.S. 47-87 and 47-88, and such deed, mortgage or other instrument has been registered, without any order of registration by the probate judge or clerk of the superior court appearing thereon, the probate and registration of any and every such deed, mortgage or other instrument shall be, and hereby is, to all intents and purposes validated. (1921, c. 19, ss. 3, 4; C.S., s. 3366(d).)

 

§ 47-90.  Validation of acknowledgments taken by notaries public holding other office.

In every case where deeds or other instruments have been acknowledged before a notary public, when the notary public, at the time was also holding some other office, and the deed or other instrument has been duly probated and recorded, such acknowledgment taken by such notary public is hereby declared to be sufficient and valid. (1921, c. 21; C.S., s. 3366(e).)

 

§ 47-91.  Validation of certain probates of deeds before consular agents of the United States.

In all cases where the acknowledgment, privy examination of a married woman, or other proof of the execution of any deed, mortgage or other instrument authorized or required to be registered has been taken before any consular agent of the United States, during the time Chapter 35 of Battle's Revisal remained in force and effect, and such acknowledgment, privy examination, or other proof of the execution of such deed, mortgage, or other instrument is in other respects regular and in proper form, and such deed, mortgage, or other instrument has been duly ordered to registration and registered in the proper county, the acknowledgment, probate, and registration of any and every such deed, mortgage, or other instrument is hereby validated as fully and to the same effect as though such acknowledgment, privy examination, or other proof of execution had been taken before one of the officers named in subsection five of section two of said Chapter 35 of Battle's Revisal. (1921, c. 157; C.S., s. 3366(f).)

 

§ 47-92.  Probates before stockholders and directors of banks.

No acknowledgment or proof of execution, including privy examination of married women, of any mortgage, or deed of trust executed to secure the payment of any indebtedness to any banking corporation shall be held invalid by reason of the fact that the officer taking such acknowledgment, proof, or privy examination was a stockholder or director in such banking corporation.  (1923, c. 17; C.S., s. 3366(g); 2013-204, s. 1.28.)

 

§ 47-93.  Acknowledgments taken by stockholder, officer, or director of bank.

No acknowledgment or proof of execution, including privy examination of married women, of any mortgage or deed of trust executed to secure the payment of any indebtedness to any banking corporation shall be held invalid by reason of the fact that the officer taking such acknowledgment, proof, or privy examination was a stockholder, officer, or director in such banking corporation.  (Ex. Sess. 1924, c. 68; 2013-204, s. 1.29.)

 

§ 47-94.  Acknowledgment and registration by officer or stockholder in building and loan or savings and loan association.

All acknowledgments and proofs of execution, including privy examination of married women, of any mortgage or deed of trust executed to secure the payment of any indebtedness to any State or federal building and loan or savings and loan association shall not be, nor held to be, invalid by reason of the fact that the clerk of the superior court, justice of the peace, notary public, or other officer taking such acknowledgment, proof of execution or privy examination, was an officer or stockholder in such building and loan association; but such proofs and acknowledgments of all such instruments, and the registration thereof, if in all other respects valid, are hereby declared to be valid.

Nor shall the registration of any such mortgage or deed of trust ordered to be registered by the clerk of the superior court, or by any deputy or assistant clerk of the superior court, be or held to be invalid by reason of the fact that the clerk of the superior court, or deputy, or assistant clerk of the superior court, ordering such mortgages or deeds of trust to be registered was an officer or stockholder in any State or federal building and loan or savings and loan association, whose indebtedness is secured in and by such mortgage or deed of trust.  (Ex. Sess. 1924, c. 108; 1929, c. 146, s. 1; 1959, c. 489; 2013-204, s. 1.30.)

 

§ 47-95.  Acknowledgments taken by notaries interested as trustee or holding other office.

In every case where deeds and other instruments have been acknowledged and privy examination of wives had before notaries public, or justices of the peace, prior to October 1, 1991, when the notary public or justice of the peace at the time was interested as trustee in said instrument or at the time was also holding some other office, and the deed or other instrument has been duly probated and recorded, such acknowledgment and privy examination taken by such notary public or justice of the peace is hereby declared to be sufficient and valid.  (1923, c. 61; C.S., s. 3366(h); 1931, cc. 166, 438; 1939, c. 321; 1955, c. 696; 1957, c. 1270; 1959, c. 81; 1969, c. 639, s. 1; 1975, c. 320, s. 1; 2013-204, s. 1.31.)

 

§ 47-96.  Validation of instruments registered without probate.

In every case where it shall appear from the records in the office of the register of deeds of any county in the State that any instrument of writing required or allowed by law to be registered prior to January 1, 1869, without any acknowledgment, proof, privy examination, or probate, or upon a defective acknowledgment, proof, privy examination, or probate, the record of such instrument may, notwithstanding, be read in evidence in any of the courts of this State, if otherwise competent. (1923, c. 215, s. 1; C.S., s. 3366(i).)

 

§ 47-97.  Validation of corporate deed with mistake as to officer's name.

In all cases where the deed of a corporation executed before April 1, 2013, is properly executed, properly recorded and there is error in the probate of said corporation's deed as to the name or names of the officers in said probate, said deed shall be construed to be a deed of the same force and effect as if said probate were in every way proper.  (1933, c. 412, s. 1; 2013-204, s. 1.32.)

 

§ 47-97.1.  Validation of corporate deeds containing error in acknowledgment or probate.

In all cases where the deed of a corporation executed and filed for registration prior to April 1, 2013, is properly executed and properly recorded and there is error in the acknowledgment or probate of said corporation's deed as to the name or names of the officer or officers named therein and error as to the title or titles of the officer or officers named therein, said deed shall be construed to be a deed of the same force and effect as if said probate or acknowledgment were in every way proper.  (1951, c. 825; 2013-204, s. 1.33.)

 

§ 47-98.  Registration on defective probates beyond State.

In every case where it shall appear from the records in the office of the register of deeds of any county in this State that any instrument required or allowed by law to be registered, bearing date prior to the year 1835, executed by any person or persons residing in any of the United States, other than this State, or in any of the territories of the United States, or in the District of Columbia, has  been proven or acknowledged, or the privy examination of any feme covert taken thereto, before any officer or person authorized by any of the laws of this State in force prior to the said year 1835 to take such proofs, privy examinations and acknowledgments, and the said instrument has been registered in the proper county without the certificate of the Governor of the state or territory in which such proofs, acknowledgments or privy examinations were taken, or of the Secretary of State of the United States, when such certificate or certificates were required, as to the official character of the person taking such acknowledgment, proof or privy examination, as aforesaid, and without an order of registration made by a court or judge in this State having jurisdiction to make such order, then and in all such cases such proofs, privy examinations, acknowledgments and registrations are hereby in all respects fully validated and confirmed and declared to be sufficient in law, and such instruments so registered may be read in evidence in any of the courts of this State. (1923, c. 215, ss. 2, 3; C.S., s. 3366(j).)

 

§ 47-99.  Certificates of clerks without seal.

All certificates of acknowledgment and all verifications of pleadings, affidavits, and other instruments executed by clerks of the superior court of the State prior to March 1, 1945, and which do not bear the official seal of such clerks, are hereby validated in all cases in which the instruments bearing such acknowledgment or certification are filed or recorded in any county in the State other than the county in which the clerk executing such certificates of acknowledgment or verifications resides, and such acknowledgments and verifications are hereby made and declared to be binding, valid and effective to the same extent and in the same manner as if said official seal had been affixed. (1925, c. 248; 1945, c. 798.)

 

§ 47-100.  Acknowledgments taken by officer who was grantor.

In all cases where a deed or deeds dated prior to the first day of January, 1980, purporting to convey lands, have been registered in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the lands conveyed in said deed or deeds are located, prior to said first day of January, 1980, and the acknowledgments or proof of execution of such deed or deeds has been taken as to some of the grantors by an officer who was himself one of the grantors named in such deed or deeds, such defective execution, acknowledgment and proof of execution and probate of such deed or deeds thereon and the registration thereof as above described, shall be, and the same are hereby declared to be in all respects valid, and such deed or deeds shall be declared to be in all respects duly executed, probated and recorded to the same effect as if such officer taking such proof or acknowledgment of execution had not been named as a grantor therein, or in anywise interested therein. (1929, c. 48, s. 1; 1953, c. 986; 1991 (Reg. Sess., 1992), c. 1030, s. 51.8.)

 

§ 47-101.  Seal of acknowledging officer omitted; deeds made presumptive evidence.

In all cases where deeds appear to have been executed for land prior to January 1, 1900, and appear to have been recorded in the offices of the registers of deeds in the proper counties in this State, and the same appear to have been acknowledged before commissioners of affidavits (or deeds) of North Carolina, residing in  the District of Columbia or elsewhere in the different states, or appear to have been recorded without any certificate being recorded on the record of such deed or deeds, such record or records shall be presumptive evidence of the execution of such deed or deeds by the grantor or the grantors to the grantee or grantees therein named for the lands therein described, and the record of such deed or deeds may  be offered or read in evidence upon the trial or hearing of any cause  in any of the courts of this State as if the same had been properly probated and recorded: Provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall prevent such record or records from being attacked for fraud, and provided further that this section shall not apply to creditors or purchasers, but as to them the same shall stand as if this section had not been passed, and shall only apply to deeds executed prior to January 1, 1900. (1929, c. 14, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-102.  Absence of notarial seal.

Any deed executed prior to October 1, 2005, and duly acknowledged before a North Carolina notary public, and the probate recites "witness my hand and notarial seal," or words of similar import, and no seal was affixed to the said deed, shall be ordered registered by the clerk of the superior court of the county in which the land lies, upon presentation to him: Provided, the probate is otherwise in due form.  (1935, c. 130; 1943, c. 472; 1945, c. 808, s. 3; 2013-204, s. 1.34.)

 

§ 47-103.  Deeds probated and registered with notary's seal not affixed, validated.

Any deed conveying or affecting real estate executed prior to January 1, 1932, and ordered registered and recorded in the county in which the land lies prior to said date, from which deed and the acknowledgment and privy examination thereof the seal of the notary public taking the acknowledgment or privy examination of the grantor or grantors thereof was omitted, is hereby declared to be sufficient and valid, and the probate and registration thereof are hereby in all respects validated and confirmed to the same effect as if the seal of said notary was affixed to the acknowledgment or privy examination thereof. (1941, c. 20.)

 

§ 47-104.  Acknowledgments of notary holding another office.

In every case where deeds or other instruments have been acknowledged before a notary public, when the notary public at the time was also holding some other office, and the deed or other instrument has been duly probated and recorded, such acknowledgment taken by such notary public is hereby declared to be sufficient and valid. (1935, c. 133; 1937, c. 284.)

 

§ 47-105.  Acknowledgment and private examination of married woman taken by officer who was grantor.

In all cases where a deed or deeds of mortgages or other conveyances of land dated prior to the first day of January, 1926, purporting to convey lands have been registered in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the lands conveyed in said deeds are located prior to said first day of January, 1926, and the acknowledgments or proof of execution of such deed or deeds and the private examination of any married woman who is a grantor in such deed or deeds have been taken as to some of the grantors, and the private examination of any married woman grantor in such deed has been taken by an officer who was himself one of the grantors named in such deed or deeds, such defective execution, acknowledgment, proof of execution and the private examination of such married woman, evidenced by the certificate thereof on such deed and the registration thereof as above described and set forth, shall be and the same are hereby declared to be in all respects valid, and such deed or deeds or other conveyances of land are declared to be in all respects duly executed, probated and recorded to the same effect as if such officer taking such proof or acknowledgment of execution or taking the private examination of such married woman and certifying thereto upon such deed or deeds had not been named as grantor therein and had not been interested therein in any way whatsoever. (1937, c. 91.)

 

§ 47-106.  Certain instruments in which clerk of superior court was a party, validated.

In all cases where a deed, or other conveyance of land dated prior to the first day of January, 1918, purporting to convey land, wherein the grantor or one of the grantors therein was at the time clerk of the superior court of the county where the land purporting to be conveyed was located, was acknowledged, proof of execution, privy examination of a married woman, and, or, order of registration had and taken before a deputy clerk of the superior court of said county, and the instrument registered upon the order of said deputy clerk of the superior court in the office of the register of deeds of said county, within two years from the date of said instrument, such instrument and its probate are hereby in all respects validated and confirmed; and such instrument, together with such defective acknowledgment, proof of execution, privy examination of a married woman, order of registration, and the certificate of such deputy clerk of the superior court, and the registration thereof, are hereby declared in all respects to be valid and binding upon the parties of such instrument and their privies, and such instrument so probated and recorded together with its certificates may be read in evidence as a muniment of title, for all intents and purposes, in any of the courts of this State. (1939, c. 261.)

 

§ 47-107.  Validation of probate and registration of certain instruments where name of grantor omitted from record.

Whenever any deed, deed of trust, conveyance or other instrument permitted by law to be registered in this State has been registered for a period of 21 years or more and a clerk of the superior court or a register of deeds has adjudged the certificate of the officer before whom the acknowledgment was taken to be in due form and correct and has ordered the instrument to be recorded, but the name of a grantor which appears in the body of the instrument and as a signer of the instrument has been omitted from the record of the certificate of the officer before whom the acknowledgment was taken, such deed, deed of trust, conveyance or other instrument shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly acknowledged, probated and recorded; provided this presumption shall not affect litigation instituted within 21 years after date of registration. (1941, c. 30; 1971, c. 825.)

 

§ 47-108.  Acknowledgments before notaries under age.

All acts of notaries public for the State of North Carolina who were not yet 21 years of age at the time of the performance of such acts are hereby validated; and in every case where deeds or other instruments have been acknowledged before such notary public who was not yet 21 years of age at the time of taking of said acknowledgment,  such acknowledgment taken before such notary public is hereby declared to be sufficient and valid. (1941, c. 233.)

 

§ 47-108.1.  Certain corporate deeds, etc., declared validly admitted to record.

Deeds, conveyances and other instruments of writing of corporations entitled to registration, which have been heretofore duly executed in the manner required by law, by the proper officers of the  corporation, and which have prior to March 8, 1943, been admitted to registration, on the acknowledgment or proof of the proper executing officer, in the manner required by law, shall be, and the same are hereby declared to be, in all respects validly admitted to record, although such officer at the date of such acknowledgment or proof had ceased to be an officer of such corporation, or such corporation at the date of such acknowledgment or proof had ceased to exist. (1943, c. 598.)

 

§ 47-108.2.  Acknowledgments and examinations before notaries holding some other office.

In every case where deeds or other instruments have been acknowledged, and where privy examination of wives had, before a notary public, when the notary public at the time was also holding some other office, and the deed or other instrument has been otherwise duly probated and recorded, such acknowledgment taken by, and such privy examination had before such notary public is hereby declared to be sufficient and valid. (1945, c. 149.)

 

§ 47-108.3.  Validation of acts of certain notaries public prior to November 26, 1921.

In all cases where prior to November 26, 1921, instruments by law, or otherwise, required, permitted or authorized to be registered, certified, probated, recorded or filed with certificates of notaries public showing the acknowledgments or proofs of execution thereof as required by the laws of the State of North Carolina have been registered, certified, probated, recorded or filed, such registration, certifications, probates, recordations and filings are hereby validated and made as good and sufficient as though such instruments had been in all respects properly registered, certified, probated, recorded or filed, notwithstanding there are no records in the office of the Governor of the State of North Carolina or in the office of the clerk of the superior court of the county in which such notaries public were to act that such persons acting as such notaries public had ever been appointed or subscribed written oaths or received any certificates or commissions or were qualified as notaries public at the time of the performance of the acts hereby validated. (1947, c. 102.)

 

§ 47-108.4.  Acknowledgments, etc., of instruments of married women made since February 7, 1945.

All acknowledgments, probates and registrations of instruments wherein any married woman was a grantor, including deeds and mortgages on land, made since February 7, 1945, are hereby validated, approved and declared of full force and effect. (1947, c. 991, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-108.5.  Validation of certain deeds executed in other states where seal omitted.

All deeds to lands in North Carolina, executed prior to January 1, 1991, without seal attached to the maker's name, which deeds were acknowledged in another state, the laws of which do not require a seal for the validity of a conveyance of real property located in that state, and which deeds have been duly recorded in this State, shall be as valid to all intents and purposes as if the same had been executed under seal. (1949, cc. 87, 296; 1959, c. 797; 1983, c. 398, s. 6; 1985, c. 70, s. 6; 1987, c. 277, s. 6; 1989, c. 390, s. 6; 1991, c. 489, s. 6.)

 

§ 47-108.6.  Validation of certain conveyances of foreign dissolved corporations.

In all cases when, prior to April 1, 2013, any dissolved foreign corporation has, prior to its dissolution, by deed of conveyance purported to convey real property in this State, and said instrument recites a consideration, is signed by the proper officers in the name of said corporation, sealed with the corporate seal and duly registered in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the land described in said instrument is located, but there is error in the attestation clause and acknowledgment in failing to identify the officers signing said deed and to recite that authority was duly given and that the same was the act of said corporation, said deed shall be construed to be a deed of the same force and effect as if said attestation clause and acknowledgment were in every way proper.  (1949, c. 1212; 2013-204, s. 1.35.)

 

§ 47-108.7.  Validation of acknowledgments, etc., by deputy clerks of superior court.

All acts heretofore performed by deputy clerks of the superior court in taking acknowledgments, examining witnesses and probating wills, deeds and other instruments required or permitted by law to be recorded are hereby validated: Provided, nothing in this section shall affect pending litigation. (1949, c. 1072.)

 

§ 47-108.8.  Acts of registers of deeds or deputies in recording plats and maps by certain methods validated.

All acts heretofore performed by a register of deeds, or a deputy register of deeds in recording plats and maps by transcribing a correct copy thereof or permanently attaching the original to the records in a book designated "Book of Plats" is hereby validated the same as if said plats had been recorded as required by G.S. 47-30: Provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall affect pending litigation. (1949, c. 1073.)

 

§ 47-108.9.  Validation of probate of instruments pursuant to § 47-12.

The probates of all instruments taken on and after February 7, 1945, in accordance with the provisions of G.S. 47-12, as amended by section 11 of Chapter 73 of the Session Laws of 1945 and section 1  of Chapter 991 of the Session Laws of 1947 and as further amended by sections 2 and 3 of Chapter 815 of the Session Laws of 1949, are hereby in all respects validated; provided, however, that this section shall not apply to pending litigation. (1949, c. 815, s. 3.)

 

§ 47-108.10.  Validation of registration of plats upon probate in accordance with § 47-30.

The registration of all plats which have prior to February 6, 1953, been admitted to registration upon probate thereof, in accordance with the provisions of G.S. 47-30 as amended by section 1 of Chapter 47 of the Session Laws of 1953, is hereby validated. (1953, c. 47, s. 2.)

 

§ 47-108.11.  Validation of recorded instruments where seals have been omitted.

In all cases of any deed, deed of trust, mortgage, lien or other instrument authorized or required to be registered in the office of the register of deeds of any county in this State where it appears of record or it appears that from said instrument, as recorded in the office of the register of deeds of any county in the State, there has been omitted from said recorded or registered instrument the word "seal," "notarial seal" and that any of said recorded or registered instruments shows or recites that the grantor or grantors "have hereunto fixed or set their hands and seals" and the signature of the grantor or grantors appears without a seal thereafter or on the recorded or registered instrument or in all cases where it appears there is an attesting clause which recites "signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of," and the signature of the grantor or grantors appears on the recorded or registered instrument without any seal appearing thereafter or of record, then all such deeds, mortgages, deeds of trust, liens or other instruments, and the registration of same in the office of the register of deeds, are hereby declared to be in all respects valid and binding and are hereby made in all respects valid and binding to the same extent as if the word "seal" or "notarial seal" had not been omitted, and the registration and recording of such instruments in the office of the register of deeds in any county in this State are hereby declared to be valid, proper, legal and binding registrations.

This section shall not apply in any respect to any instrument recorded or registered subsequent to April 1, 2013, or to pending litigation or to any such instruments now directly or indirectly involved in pending litigation.  (1953, c. 996; 1959, c. 1022; 1973, c. 519; c. 1207, s. 2; 1977, c. 165; 1979, 2nd Sess., c. 1185, s. 1; 1983, c. 398, s. 7; 1985, c. 70, s. 7; 1987, c. 277, s. 7; 1989, c. 390, s. 7; 1991, c. 489, s. 7; 1995, c. 163, s. 16; 1999-456, s. 12; 2013-204, s. 1.36.)

 

§ 47-108.12.  Validation of instruments acknowledged before United States commissioners.

All deeds, mortgages, or other instruments permitted or required by law to be registered, which prior to January 1, 1933, have been proved or acknowledged before a United States commissioner, or U.S. commissioner, are hereby in all respects validated as to such proof or acknowledgment, and all registrations of such deeds or conveyances, upon such probates, acknowledgments and private examinations, or any of them, are hereby declared to be sufficient and validated. (1953, c. 987.)

 

§ 47-108.13.  Validation of certain instruments registered prior to January 1, 1934.

In all cases where prior to January 1, 1934 instruments by law required or authorized to be registered show the signatures and seal of each of the grantors therein and further show that each of such grantors has appeared before or signed such instruments in the presence of a notary public, justice of the peace or other person duly authorized to take acknowledgments, and such instruments have been ordered registered by the clerk of the superior court or other officer qualified to pass upon probate and admit instruments to registration, and actually put on the books in the office of the register of deeds, as if properly acknowledged, all such instruments and their registrations are hereby validated and made as good and sufficient as though such instruments had been in all respects properly acknowledged: Provided, that this section shall not apply to any privy examination or acknowledgment of a married woman. (1953, c. 1334.)

 

§ 47-108.14.  Conveyances by the United States acting by and through the General Services Administration.

The United States of America, acting by and through the General Services Administration may convey lands and other property in the State of North Carolina which is transferable by deed, quitclaim deed, or other means of conveyances without the Regional Director or other duly authorized agent acting for and on behalf of the United States of America, adopting or placing a "seal," in any form, after the signature of the grantor's agent, or elsewhere on said deed, quitclaim deed, or other instrument, and the conveyances of the United States of America acting by and through the General Services Administration, and executed by its Regional Director or other duly authorized agent, although without a "seal" appearing thereon, shall be in all respects valid and binding to the same extent as if the word "seal" or some other type of seal, appeared after the signature of the grantor's agent, or elsewhere on said conveyances.

All conveyances prior to April 19, 1955, where any deed, quitclaim  deed, or other instrument conveying land or other property in the State of North Carolina has been executed by the United States of America, by and through the General Services Administration, and said conveyances are authorized or required to be registered in the office of the register of deeds of any county in this State, and it appears from said instrument, or said instrument as recorded in the office of the register of deeds of any county in this State, that a seal has been omitted from said instruments, that notwithstanding the absence of a seal all such conveyances are hereby declared to be in all respects valid and binding to convey lands and property rights in the State of North Carolina to the grantees named therein, to the same extent as if the word "seal," or a seal in some other form, had appeared after the signature of the grantor's agent, or elsewhere on said conveyances, and the registration and recording of such conveyances in the office of the register of deeds in all counties in  this State are hereby declared to be valid, proper, legal and binding  registrations to the same extent as if such conveyances were executed  under seal. (1955, c. 629, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-108.15.  Validation of registration of instruments filed before order of registration.

All deeds, deeds of trust, mortgages, chattel mortgages, contracts and all other instruments required or permitted by law to be registered which have heretofore been accepted for filing and registration by registers of deeds on a date preceding the date of the clerk's order of registration are hereby validated, approved, confirmed and declared to be valid, proper, legal and binding registrations to the same extent as if such instruments had been accepted for filing and registration on the date of or subsequent to the date of the clerk's order of registration. (1957, c. 1430.)

 

§ 47-108.16.  Validation of certain deeds executed by nonresident banks.

All deeds and other conveyances of land in this State executed on behalf of banks not incorporated in the State of North Carolina, by a trust officer thereof, and properly recorded on or before December 31, 1963, which deeds are otherwise regular and valid, are hereby validated. (1965, c. 610.)

 

§ 47-108.17.  Validation of certain deeds where official capacity not designated.

In all cases where an executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, guardian or commissioner has executed a deed, deed of  trust or other instrument of conveyance permitted by law to be registered in this State and the granting clause of the instrument sets forth the official capacity of the grantor, neither the failure to redesignate the grantor's official capacity following his or her signature nor the failure to designate the official capacity of the grantor in the acknowledgment of the instrument shall invalidate the conveyance provided the instrument is otherwise properly executed. (1973, c. 1220, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-108.18.  Registration of certain instruments containing a notarial jurat validated.

A notarial jurat constitutes an acknowledgment in due form for all plats or maps that have heretofore been accepted for filing and registration under G.S. 47-30 as amended. No plat or map heretofore accepted for filing and registration, that contains a notarial jurat instead of an acknowledgment may be held to be improperly registered solely for lack of a proper acknowledgment. (1983, c. 391.)

 

§ 47-108.18A.  Registration of certain instruments containing a notarial acknowledgment.

A notarial acknowledgment constitutes a jurat in due form for all instruments that have heretofore been accepted for filing and registration under this Chapter or which relate to real estate located within this State.  (2013-204, s. 1.37.)

 

§ 47-108.18B.  Registration of certain instruments containing a notarial jurat.

A notarial jurat constitutes an acknowledgment in due form for all instruments that have heretofore been accepted for filing and registration under this Chapter or which relate to real estate located within this State.  (2013-204, s. 1.37.)

 

§ 47-108.19.  Validation of certain maps and plats that cannot be copied.

All maps and plats registered before June 1, 1983, pursuant to G.S. 47-30 that met all of the requirements of that statute except  that they were not on a material from which legible copies could be made or did not contain the original of the surveyor's signature and acknowledgment are declared to be valid registrations. (1983, c. 756.)

 

§ 47-108.20.  Validation of certain recorded instruments that were not acknowledged.

All instruments recorded before April 1, 2013, that were not reexecuted and reacknowledged and that correct an obvious typographical or other minor error in a recorded instrument that was previously properly executed and acknowledged are declared to be valid instruments.  (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 842, s. 2; 2013-204, s. 1.38.)

 

§ 47-108.21.  Sales for 1930 on dates other than first Monday in June validated.

All sales of land for failure to pay taxes held or conducted by any sheriff or any tax collector of any county, city, town, or other municipality during the year 1930, on any day subsequent to or other than the first Monday in June of said year, are hereby approved, confirmed, validated, and declared to be proper, valid, and legal sales of such land and legally binding in all respects, and all certificates of sale made and issued upon and in accordance with such sales are hereby approved and validated to all intents and purposes with such full force and legal effect as if said sales had been held and conducted on said first Monday of June, 1930. (1931, c. 160; 1971, c. 806, s. 1; 1987, c. 777, s. 4(1).)

 

§ 47-108.22.  Tax sales for 1931-32 on day other than law provides and certificates validated.

All sales of land for failure to pay taxes held or conducted by any sheriff or any tax collector of any county, city, town, or other municipality during the years 1931 and 1932, on any day subsequent to or other than the first Monday in June of said year, are hereby approved, confirmed, validated, and declared to be proper, valid, and legal sales of such land and legally binding in all respects, and all certificates of sale made and issued upon and in accordance with such sales approved and validated to all intents and purposes with such full force and legal effect as if said sales had been held and conducted on said first Monday of June, 1931 and 1932. (1933, c. 177; 1971, c. 806, s. 1; 1987, c. 777, s. 4(1).)

 

§ 47-108.23.  Tax sales for 1933-34 and certificates validated.

All sales of land for failure to pay taxes held or conducted by any sheriff or any tax collector of any county, city, town, or other municipality during the years 1933 and 1934, or on any date subsequent to or other than the date prescribed by law, and all certificates of sale executed and issued pursuant to and in accordance with such sales be and the same are hereby approved, confirmed, and validated and shall have the same force and legal effect as if said sales had been held and conducted on the date prescribed by law.

The board of county commissioners of any county or the governing board of any city, town, or other municipality may by resolution order the sheriff or tax collecting officer of the said county, city, town, or other municipality to advertise in the manner provided by law and sell all land for the taxes of any year levied by the said county, city, town, or other municipality, which land has not heretofore been legally sold for the failure to pay said taxes. The sale or sales herein authorized shall be held not later than the first Monday in September 1935, and certificates of sale shall be issued in accordance with and pursuant to said sale or sales in the same manner as if said sale or sales had been held and conducted as provided by law. Any sale held and conducted under the provisions of this paragraph and all certificates issued pursuant to such a sale shall be and the same are hereby approved, confirmed, and validated and shall have the same force and legal effect as if said sale had been held and conducted on the date prescribed by law.

All actions instituted in any county, city, town, or other municipality for the foreclosure of certificates of sale issued for the taxes of the years 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931 and 1932 subsequent to October 1, 1934, and all such actions instituted before October 1, 1935, shall be and the same are hereby approved, validated, and declared to be legally binding and of the same force and effect as if said actions were instituted prior to October 1, 1934: Provided, that this section shall not be construed to repeal any private or local act passed by the General Assembly of 1935. (1935, c. 331; 1971, c. 806, s. 1; 1987, c. 777, s. 4(1).)

 

§ 47-108.24.  Notices of sale for taxes by publication validated.

All sales of real property under tax certificate foreclosures made between January 1, 1927, and March 13, 1937, where the original notice of sale was published for four successive weeks, and any notice of resale was published for two successive weeks, preceding said sales, whether the notice of sale was required to be published in a newspaper or at courthouse door, or both, shall be, and the same are in all respects validated as to publication of said notice: Provided said publication was completed as above set out within 10 days of the date of the sale.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to the Counties of Alleghany, Beaufort, Cabarrus, Camden, Carteret, Caswell, Currituck, Halifax, Harnett, Henderson, Hertford, Hyde, Iredell, Johnston, Jones, Macon, Mitchell, Moore, Nash, New Hanover, Perquimans, Pitt, Polk, Rowan, Rutherford, Scotland, Surry, Wake, Warren, Washington, and Wayne. (1937, c. 128; 1971, c. 806, s. 1; 1987, c. 777, s. 4(1).)

 

§ 47-108.25.  Validation of sales and resales held pursuant to § 105-374.

All sales or resales held prior to April 14, 1951, pursuant to G.S. 105-374, where the advertisement was in accordance with G.S. 1-327 and 1-328 as provided by such sections prior to their repeal, are validated to the same extent as if such advertisement were in accordance with Article 29A of Chapter 1 of the General Statutes; and all such sales, where the provisions of G.S. 45-28 as to resales, as provided by such section prior to its repeal, were followed, are validated to the same extent as if the resale procedure provided for in Article 29A of Chapter 1 of the General Statutes had been followed. (1951, c. 1036, s. 2; 1971, c. 806, s. 1; 1987, c. 777, s. 4(1).)

 

§ 47-108.26.  Validation of reconveyances of tax foreclosed property by county boards of commissioners.

The action of county boards of commissioners taken prior to March 20, 1951, reconveying tax foreclosed property by private sale to the former owners or other interested parties for amounts not less than such counties' interest therein is hereby ratified, confirmed, and validated. (1951, c. 300, s. 2; 1971, c. 806, s. 1; 1987, c. 777, s. 4.)

 

§ 47-108.27.  Title to real property affected by boundary certification; liens.

(a)        Title to real property previously treated as being subject to the jurisdiction of the State of South Carolina but that is recognized as being within the boundaries of this State as a result of the certification of the boundary is not affected by the certification of the boundary or the recognition of the real property as being within the boundaries of this State. All conveyances and instruments of title, of any sort, made prior to the certification of the boundary shall be recognized and given full faith and credit in this State according to the law, jurisdiction, and terms in effect at the time of the conveyance in the jurisdiction the property was previously treated as being subject to. For the purposes of this subsection, "instruments of title" means any instrument that affects title or constitutes the chain of title to real property, including, but not limited to, all deeds, wills, estate documents evidencing transfer of title, plats, surveys, easements, rights-of-way, outstanding mortgages and deeds of trust, judicial orders or decrees, and documents evidencing intestate succession.

(b)        Liens recorded prior to the date of boundary certification with the register of deeds or docketed with the clerk of superior court in the county in this State where the affected parcel is situated shall attach, as a class, to the affected parcel as of the effective date and time of the boundary certification. This class of liens shall be assigned priority as of the date of boundary certification but shall retain the same priority among themselves as if this subsection did not apply.  (2016-23, ss. 3(c), (d).)

 

§ 47-108.28.  (Effective August 31, 2018) Seven-year curative statute.

(a)        An instrument conveying or purporting to convey an interest in real property that contains a defect, irregularity, or omission shall be deemed effective to vest title as stated therein and to the same extent as though the instrument had not contained the material defect, irregularity, or omission, if both of the following conditions are met:

(1)        The instrument is recorded by the register of deeds in the county or counties where the property is situated.

(2)        The material defect, irregularity, or omission is not corrected within seven years after the instrument was recorded.

The proper recordation and indexing of a curative instrument or a notice of lis pendens shall toll the seven-year curative period.

(b)        For the purposes of this section only, an instrument shall be deemed to contain a "defect, irregularity, or omission" when any of the following conditions are met:

(1)        The recorded instrument lacks any of the following:

a.         A properly executed form of acknowledgment as provided under Article 3 of this Chapter or Chapter 10B of the General Statutes.

b.         The proper recital of consideration paid.

c.         The residence of a party.

d.         The address of the property.

e.         The address of a party.

f.          The date of the instrument.

g.         The date of any instrument or obligation secured by the instrument.

h.         The proper affixation of seal by any person authorized to execute an instrument by virtue of an office or appointment held by the grantor that is required to affix the seal to the recorded instrument under applicable law.

(2)        The name of a grantor, trustor, mortgagor, assignor, borrower, or other person with an interest in the property does not appear in any part of the instrument, but the person executed the instrument without limitation or qualification. The person who executed the instrument without limitation or qualification shall be deemed to have conveyed or encumbered (as applicable) any interest or right such person then had in the property conveyed or encumbered by the terms of the instrument.

(c)        Nothing in this section is intended to modify any provisions of law pertaining to the competency or infancy of the grantor or the provisions of Chapter 22 of the General Statutes or to limit any remedies available under the laws of this State.  (2017-110, s. 3.)

 

 

Article 5.

Registration of Official Discharges from the Armed Forces of the United States.

§ 47-109.  Book for record of discharges in office of register of deeds; specifications.

There shall be provided, and at all times maintained, in the office of the register of deeds of each county in North Carolina a special and permanent book, in which shall be recorded official discharges from the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps and other branches of the Armed Forces of the United States. The book shall be securely bound, and the pages of the book shall be printed in the form of discharge papers, with sufficient blank lines for the recording of such dates as may be contained in the discharge papers offered for registration.  (1921, c. 198, s. 1; C.S., s. 3366(k); 1945, c. 659, s. 2; 2011-183, s. 34.)

 

§ 47-110.  Registration of official discharge or certificate of lost discharge.

Upon the presentation to the register of deeds of any county of any official discharge, or official certificate of lost discharge, from the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or any other branch of the Armed Forces of the United States the register of deeds shall record the same without charge in the book provided for in G.S. 47-109.  (1921, c. 198, s. 2; C.S., s. 3366(l); 1943, c. 599; 1945, c. 659, s. 1; 2011-183, s. 35.)

 

§ 47-111.  Inquiry by register of deeds; oath of applicant.

If any register of deeds shall be in doubt as to whether or not any paper so presented for registration is an official discharge from the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or any other branch of the Armed Forces of the United States or an official certificate of lost discharge, the register of deeds shall have power to examine, under oath, the person so presenting such discharge, or otherwise inquire into its validity; and every register of deeds to whom a discharge or certificate of lost discharge is presented for registration shall administer to the person offering such discharge or certificate of lost discharge for registration the following oath, to be recorded with and form a part of the registration of such discharge or certificate of lost discharge:

"I, ______________, being duly sworn, depose and say that the foregoing discharge (or certificate of lost discharge) is the original discharge (or certificate of lost discharge) issued to me by the government of the United States; and that no alterations have been made therein by me, or by any person to my knowledge.

                                               

Subscribed and sworn to before me this ________ day of ________, ________"

(1921, c. 198, s. 3; C.S., s. 3366(m); 1999-456, s. 59; 2011-183, s. 36.)

 

§ 47-112.  Forgery or alteration of discharge or certificate; punishment.

Any person who shall forge, or in any manner alter any discharge or certificate of lost discharge issued by the government of the United States, and offer the same for registration or secure the registration of the same under the provisions of this Article shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. (1921, c. 198, s. 4; C.S., s. 3366(n); 1993, c. 539, s. 409; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)

 

§ 47-113.  Certified copy of registration.

Any person desiring a certified copy of any such discharge, or certificate of lost discharge, registered under the provisions of this Article shall apply for the same to the register of deeds of the county in which such discharge or certificate of lost discharge is registered. The register of deeds shall furnish certified copies of instruments registered under this Article without charge to any member or former member of the Armed Forces of the United States who applies therefor.  (1921, c. 198, s. 5; C.S., s. 3366(o); 1945, c. 659, s. 3; 1969, c. 80, s. 11; 2011-183, s. 37.)

 

§ 47-113.1: Repealed by Session Laws 2003-248, s. 1, effective January 1, 2004.

 

§ 47-113.2.  Restricting access to military discharge documents.

(a)        All military discharge documents filed on or after January 1, 2004, shall be considered a public record, but for confidential safekeeping and restricted access to such documents, these documents will be filed with the registers of deeds in this State. These documents are exempt from public inspection and access except as allowed in subsections (b) and (m) of this section.

(b)        Definitions:

(1)        Authorized party. - Four categories of authorized parties are recognized with respect to access to military discharge documents under subsection (e) of this section:

a.         The subject of the document or the subject's widow or widower.

b.         Agents and representatives of the subject authorized in writing:

1.         By the subject or subject's widow or widower in a notarized authorization,

2.         By a court to represent subject, or

3.         By the subject's executor acting on behalf of a deceased subject.

c.         Authorized agents of the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, or a court official with an interest in assisting the subject or the deceased subject's beneficiaries to obtain a benefit.

d.         Agents or representatives of the North Carolina State Archives.

(2)        Filing office. - The office where military discharge documents are recorded, registered, or filed in this State is the register of deeds.

(3)        Military discharge document. - Any document that purports to represent a notice of separation from or service in the Armed Forces of the United States or armed forces of any state, including, but not limited to, Department of Defense Form 214 or 215, WD AGO 53, WD AGO 55, WD AGO 53-55, NAVMC 78-PD, and NAVPERS 553.

(c)        A military discharge document shall be accepted for filing upon presentation in person.

(d)       The filing officer may refuse to accept any document that is:

(1)        Not submitted in person by an authorized party in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.

(2)        Not an original, a carbon copy, or a photographic copy issued or certified by an agency of federal or State government.

(e)        No copy of a military discharge document or any other information from such document filed after January 1, 2004, shall be made available other than in accordance with subsection (b) or (m) of this section.

(f)        Certified copies of a military discharge document will be made available only in accordance with subsection (h) of this section and only by individual request.

(g)        Uncertified copies of a military discharge document will be made available to an authorized party in accordance with subsection (b) of this section and only by individual request.

(h)        The North Carolina Association of Registers of Deeds and the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs shall adopt such request forms and associated rules as are required to implement the provisions of this section. All filing offices shall use the forms and comply with the rules, as adopted.

(i)         Completed request forms shall be maintained in the register of deeds for a period of one year.

(j)         The request forms shall not be considered public records and are subject to the same restricted access as the military discharge document.

(k)        In the event images of and the index to military discharge documents filed prior to January 1, 2004, have not been commingled with other publicly available document images and their index in a filing office, the images and the index will be maintained and are subject to all the provisions of this section that apply to newly filed documents.

(l)         The register of deeds shall, to the greatest extent possible, take appropriate protective actions in accordance with any limitations determined necessary by the register of deeds with regard to records that were filed before January 1, 2004.

(m)       Subsection (e) of this section shall not apply to images of military discharge documents that have been on file for over 80 years.

(n)        There shall be no fee charged for filing military discharge documents or for providing certified copies of military discharge documents provided to those who have a right to access under subsection (e) of this section. Uncertified copy of a military discharge document that becomes public record under subsection (m) of this section is subject to fee as determined in G.S. 161-10(a)(11).

(o)        Filing offices shall be responsible for the cost of compliance with this section.

(p)        Recording officials shall not be liable for any damages that may result from good faith compliance with the provisions of this section.

(q)        The words "register of deeds" appearing in this section shall be interpreted to mean "register of deeds, assistant register of deeds, or deputy register of deeds."  (2003-248, s. 2; 2011-183, s. 38; 2011-246, s. 8; 2013-15, s. 1; 2015-241, s. 24.1(o); 2015-268, s. 7.3(a).)

 

§ 47-114.  Payment of expenses incurred.

The county commissioners of each county are hereby authorized and empowered in their discretion to appropriate from the general fund of the county an amount sufficient to cover any additional expense incurred by the register of deeds of the county in carrying out the purposes of this Article. (1945, c. 659, s. 3 1/2.)

 

 

Article 6.

Registration and Execution of Instruments Signed under a Power of Attorney.

§ 47-115.  Execution in name of either principal or attorney-in-fact; indexing in names of both.

Any instrument in writing executed by an attorney-in-fact shall be good and valid as the instrument of the principal, whether or not said instrument is signed and/or acknowledged in the name of the principal by the attorney-in-fact or by the attorney-in-fact designating himself as attorney-in-fact for the principal or acknowledged in the name of the attorney-in-fact without naming the principal from which it will appear that it was the purpose of the attorney-in-fact to be acting for and on behalf of the principal mentioned or referred to in the instrument. This section shall not affect any pending litigation or the status of any matter heretofore determined by the courts. This section shall apply to all such instruments heretofore or hereafter executed. Registers of deeds shall be required to index all such instruments filed for registration both in the name of the principal or principals executing the powers of appointment and in the name of the attorney-in-fact executing the instrument: Provided, that instruments heretofore registered and indexed only in the name of the attorney-in-fact shall be valid and in all respects binding upon the principal or principals insofar as validity of registration is concerned. (1945, c. 204; 1959, c. 210.)

 

§ 47-115.1.  Repealed by Session Laws 1983, c. 626, s. 2, effective October 1, 1983.

 

 

Article 7.

Private Examination of Married Women Abolished.

§ 47-116.  Transferred to G.S. 47-14.1 by Session Laws 1951, c. 893.

 

 

Article 8.

Memoranda of Leases and Options.

§ 47-117.  Forms do not preclude use of others; adaptation of forms.

(a)        The form prescribed in this Article does not exclude the use of other forms which are sufficient in law.

(b)        The prescribed form may be adapted to fit the various situations in which the grantors or grantees are individuals, firms, associations, corporations, or otherwise, or combinations thereof. (1961, c. 1174.)

 

§ 47-118.  Forms of registration of lease.

(a)        A lease of land or land and personal property may be registered by registering a memorandum thereof which shall set forth:

(1)        The names of the parties thereto;

(2)        A description of the property leased;

(3)        The term of the lease, including extensions, renewals and options to purchase, if any; and

(4)        Reference sufficient to identify the complete agreement between the parties.

Such a memorandum may be in substantially the following form:

 

MEMORANDUM OF LEASE

 

______________________________________________________________________________

(Name and address or description of lessor or lessors)

hereby lease(s) to _______________________________________________________________ ,

                                                (Name and address or description of lessee or lessees)

for a term beginning the ____________ day of ____________________________, _____

                                                                                                (Month)                                   (Year)

and continuing for a maximum period of ___________, including extensions and renewals, if any, the following property:

 

(Here describe the property)

(If applicable: [There exists an option to purchase with respect to this leased property, in favor of the lessee which expires the ____ day of ________________, _______, which

                                                                                                   (Month)                 (Year)

is set forth at large in the complete agreement between the parties].)

The provisions set forth in a written lease agreement between the parties dated the _____ day of _______________, ______, are hereby incorporated in this memorandum.

                     (Month)              (Year)

                                                                        ____________________________________    [Seal]

                                                                                                      (Lessor)

                                                                        ____________________________________    [Seal]

                                                                                                      (Lessee)

 

(Acknowledgment as required by law.)

 

(b)        If the provisions of the lease make it impossible or impractical to state the maximum period of the lease because of conditions, renewals and extensions, or otherwise, then the memorandum of lease shall state in detail all provisions concerning the term of the lease as fully as set forth in the written lease agreement between the parties.

(c)        Registration of a memorandum of lease pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section, shall have the same legal effect as if the written lease agreement had been registered in its entirety. (1961, c. 1174; 1999-456, s. 59.)

 

§ 47-119.  Form of memorandum for option to purchase real estate.

An option to purchase real estate may be registered by registering a memorandum thereof which shall set forth:

(1)        The names of the parties thereto;

(2)        A description of the property which is subject to the option;

(3)        The expiration date of the option;

(4)        Reference sufficient to identify the complete agreement between the parties.

Such a memorandum may be in substantially the following form:

NORTH CAROLINA

__________________ COUNTY

In consideration of , the receipt_________________________________________________

                                                                                    (Set out consideration)

of which is hereby acknowledged, __________________________________________________

                                                                     (Name and address of person selling option)

does hereby give and grant to _____________________________________________________

(Name and address of person buying option)

the right and option to purchase the following property:

(Here describe property)

This option shall expire on the ________ day of ________________, ______.

The provisions set forth in a written option agreement between the parties dated the ________ day of _______________, _______, are hereby incorporated in this memorandum.

Witness our hand(s) and seal(s) this _______ day of ______________, ______

                                                                        _____________________________________ (Seal)

                                                                        _____________________________________ (Seal)

 (1961, c. 1174; 1999-456, s. 59.)

 

§ 47-119.1.  Form of memorandum for contract to purchase real estate.

A contract to convey real estate may be registered by registering a memorandum thereof which shall set forth all of the following:

(1)        The names of the parties thereto.

(2)        A description of the property which is subject to the contract.

(3)        The expiration date of the contract.

(4)        Reference sufficient to identify the complete agreement between the parties.

The memorandum may be in substantially the following form:

NORTH CAROLINA

__________________ COUNTY

 

_____________________________

(Name and address of person contracting to sell real estate)

and

_______________________________________________

(Name and address of person contracting to purchase real estate)

have entered into a contract to sell and purchase the following property:

____________________________________________________________________

(Here describe property)

This contract provides for a closing date of the _____day of _______, ________.

The provisions set forth in a written contract to convey real estate between the parties dated the _____ day of ________________, __________, are hereby incorporated in this memorandum.

Witness our hand(s) and seal(s) this _______ day of ______________, ______

                                                                                                                                                (Seal)

                                                                                                                                                (Seal)

[Acknowledgement notarial certificate by all parties, as provided by applicable law in order to register in the office of the register of deeds of the county in which the property is located.]

The titles of the contract and the parties thereto, as contained in the original written contract, may be substituted in lieu of the above references.  (2011-351, s. 1.)

 

§ 47-120.  Memorandum as notice.

Such memorandum of a lease, an option to purchase real estate, or a contract to convey real estate as proposed by G.S. 47-118, 47-119, or 47-119.1 when executed, acknowledged, delivered and registered as required by law, shall be as good and sufficient notice, and have the same force and effect as if the written lease, option to purchase real estate, or contract to convey had been registered in its entirety. However, it shall be conclusively presumed that the conditions of any contract to purchase that is the subject of a recorded memorandum under this section have been complied with or have expired and are no longer enforceable as against creditors or purchasers for valuable consideration who have recorded their interests after the memorandum from and after the expiration of 60 days from whichever of the following events occurs first:

(1)        The closing date stated in the memorandum, or any recorded extension or renewal of the memorandum, signed by the parties and acknowledged before an officer authorized to take acknowledgements.

(2)        The date when the conditions of the contract to convey, including payment of the last installment of earnest money or balance of purchase price (other than a purchase money note or deed of trust), and delivery of the deed from the seller to buyer were required by the terms of the recorded memorandum to have been performed, or the date of any recorded extension or renewal thereof signed by the parties and acknowledged before an officer authorized to take acknowledgements.  (1961, c. 1174; 2011-351, s. 2.)