Qualifications of Attorney; Unauthorized Practice of Law.
§ 84-1. Oaths taken in open court.
Attorneys before they shall be admitted to practice law shall, in open court before a justice or judge of the General Court of Justice, personally appear and take the oath prescribed for attorneys by G.S. 11-11, and also the oaths of allegiance to the State, and to support the Constitution of the United States, prescribed for all public officers by Article VI, Sec. 7 of the North Carolina Constitution and G.S. 11-7, and the same shall be entered on the records of the court; and, upon such qualification had, and oath taken may act as attorneys during their good behavior. (1777, c. 115, s. 8; R.C., c. 9, s. 3; Code, s. 19; Rev., s. 209; C.S., s. 197; 1969, c. 44, s. 58; 1973, c. 108, s. 35; 1995, c. 431, s. 1.)
§ 84-2. Persons disqualified.
No justice, judge, magistrate, full-time district attorney, full-time assistant district attorney, full-time public defender, full-time assistant public defender, clerk, deputy or assistant clerk of the General Court of Justice, register of deeds, deputy or assistant register of deeds, sheriff or deputy sheriff shall engage in the private practice of law. As used in this section, the private practice of law shall not include the performance of pro bono legal services by a lawyer, other than a justice or judge of the general court of justice, who is otherwise disqualified by this section if the pro bono services are sponsored or organized by a professional association of lawyers or a nonprofit corporation rendering legal services pursuant to G.S. 84-5.1. Persons violating this provision shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor and only fined not less than two hundred dollars ($200.00). (C.C.P., s. 424; 1870-1, c. 90; 1871-2, c. 120; 1880, c. 43; 1883, c. 406; Code, ss. 27, 28, 110; Rev., ss. 210, 3641; 1919, c. 205; C.S., s. 198; 1933, c. 15; 1941, c. 177; 1943, c. 543; 1965, c. 418, s. 1; 1969, c. 44, s. 59; 1973, c. 47, s. 2; c. 108, s. 36; 1981, c. 788, s. 1; 1993, c. 539, s. 596; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c); 1995, c. 431, s. 2; 2007-484, s. 28(a); 2017-158, s. 26.)
§ 84-2.1. "Practice law" defined.
(a) The phrase "practice law" as used in this Chapter is defined to be performing any legal service for any other person, firm or corporation, with or without compensation, specifically including the preparation or aiding in the preparation of deeds, mortgages, wills, trust instruments, inventories, accounts or reports of guardians, trustees, administrators or executors, or preparing or aiding in the preparation of any petitions or orders in any probate or court proceeding; abstracting or passing upon titles, the preparation and filing of petitions for use in any court, including administrative tribunals and other judicial or quasi-judicial bodies, or assisting by advice, counsel, or otherwise in any legal work; and to advise or give opinion upon the legal rights of any person, firm or corporation: Provided, that the above reference to particular acts which are specifically included within the definition of the phrase "practice law" shall not be construed to limit the foregoing general definition of the term, but shall be construed to include the foregoing particular acts, as well as all other acts within the general definition.
(b) The phrase "practice law" does not encompass:
(1) The drafting or writing of memoranda of understanding or other mediation summaries by mediators at community mediation centers authorized by G.S. 7A-38.5 or by mediators of employment-related matters for The University of North Carolina or a constituent institution, or for an agency, commission, or board of the State of North Carolina.
(2) The selection or completion of a preprinted form by a real estate broker licensed under Chapter 93A of the General Statutes, when the broker is acting as an agent in a real estate transaction and in accordance with rules adopted by the North Carolina Real Estate Commission, or the selection or completion of a preprinted residential lease agreement by any person or Web site provider. Nothing in this subdivision or in G.S. 84-2.2 shall be construed to permit any person or Web site provider who is not licensed to practice law in accordance with this Chapter to prepare for any third person any contract or deed conveying any interest in real property, or to abstract or pass upon title to any real property, which is located in this State.
(3) The completion of or assisting a consumer in the completion of various agreements, contracts, forms, and other documents related to the sale or lease of a motor vehicle as defined in G.S. 20-286(10), or of products or services ancillary or related to the sale or lease of a motor vehicle, by a motor vehicle dealer licensed under Article 12 of Chapter 20 of the General Statutes. (C.C.P., s. 424; 1870-1, c. 90; 1871-2, c. 120; 1880, c. 43; 1883, c. 406; Code, ss. 27, 28, 110; Rev., ss. 210, 3641; 1919, c. 205; C.S., s. 198; 1933, c. 15; 1941, c. 177; 1943, c. 543; 1945, c. 468; 1995, c. 431, s. 3; 1999-354, s. 2; 2004-154, s. 2; 2013-410, s. 32; 2016-60, s. 1.)
§ 84-2.2. Exemption and additional requirements for Web site providers.
(a) The practice of law, including the giving of legal advice, as defined by G.S. 84-2.1 does not include the operation of a Web site by a provider that offers consumers access to interactive software that generates a legal document based on the consumer's answers to questions presented by the software, provided that all of the following are satisfied:
(1) The consumer is provided a means to see the blank template or the final, completed document before finalizing a purchase of that document.
(2) An attorney licensed to practice law in the State of North Carolina has reviewed each blank template offered to North Carolina consumers, including each and every potential part thereof that may appear in the completed document. The name and address of each reviewing attorney must be kept on file by the provider and provided to the consumer upon written request.
(3) The provider must communicate to the consumer that the forms or templates are not a substitute for the advice or services of an attorney.
(4) The provider discloses its legal name and physical location and address to the consumer.
(5) The provider does not disclaim any warranties or liability and does not limit the recovery of damages or other remedies by the consumer.
(6) The provider does not require the consumer to agree to jurisdiction or venue in any state other than North Carolina for the resolution of disputes between the provider and the consumer.
(7) The provider must have a consumer satisfaction process. All consumer concerns involving the unauthorized practice of law made to the provider shall be referred to the North Carolina State Bar. The consumer satisfaction process must be conspicuously displayed on the provider's Web site.
(b) A Web site provider subject to this section shall register with the North Carolina State Bar prior to commencing operation in the State and shall renew its registration with the State Bar annually. The State Bar may not refuse registration.
(c) Each Web site provider subject to this section shall pay an initial registration fee in an amount not to exceed one hundred dollars ($100.00) and an annual renewal fee in an amount not to exceed fifty dollars ($50.00). (2016-60, s. 2.)
§ 84-3. Repealed by Session Laws 1973, c. 108, s. 37.
§ 84-4. Persons other than members of State Bar prohibited from practicing law.
Except as otherwise permitted by law, it shall be unlawful for any person or association of persons, except active members of the Bar of the State of North Carolina admitted and licensed to practice as attorneys-at-law, to appear as attorney or counselor at law in any action or proceeding before any judicial body, including the North Carolina Industrial Commission, or the Utilities Commission; to maintain, conduct, or defend the same, except in his own behalf as a party thereto; or, by word, sign, letter, or advertisement, to hold out himself, or themselves, as competent or qualified to give legal advice or counsel, or to prepare legal documents, or as being engaged in advising or counseling in law or acting as attorney or counselor-at-law, or in furnishing the services of a lawyer or lawyers; and it shall be unlawful for any person or association of persons except active members of the Bar, for or without a fee or consideration, to give legal advice or counsel, perform for or furnish to another legal services, or to prepare directly or through another for another person, firm or corporation, any will or testamentary disposition, or instrument of trust, or to organize corporations or prepare for another person, firm or corporation, any other legal document. Provided, that nothing herein shall prohibit any person from drawing a will for another in an emergency wherein the imminence of death leaves insufficient time to have the same drawn and its execution supervised by a licensed attorney-at-law. The provisions of this section shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any other provisions of this Chapter. Provided, however, this section shall not apply to corporations authorized to practice law under the provisions of Chapter 55B of the General Statutes of North Carolina. (1931, c. 157, s. 1; 1937, c. 155, s. 1; 1955, c. 526, s. 1; 1969, c. 718, s. 19; 1981, c. 762, s. 3; 1995, c. 431, s. 4.)
§ 84-4.1. Limited practice of out-of-state attorneys.
Any attorney domiciled in another state, and regularly admitted to practice in the courts of record of and in good standing in that state, having been retained as attorney for a party to any civil or criminal legal proceeding pending in the General Court of Justice of North Carolina, the North Carolina Utilities Commission, the North Carolina Industrial Commission, the Office of Administrative Hearings of North Carolina, or any administrative agency, may, on motion, be admitted to practice in that forum for the sole purpose of appearing for a client in the proceeding. The motion required under this section shall be signed by the attorney and shall contain or be accompanied by:
(1) The attorney's full name, post-office address, bar membership number, and status as a practicing attorney in another state.
(2) A statement, signed by the client, setting forth the client's address and declaring that the client has retained the attorney to represent the client in the proceeding.
(3) A statement that unless permitted to withdraw sooner by order of the court, the attorney will continue to represent the client in the proceeding until its final determination, and that with reference to all matters incident to the proceeding, the attorney agrees to be subject to the orders and amenable to the disciplinary action and the civil jurisdiction of the General Court of Justice and the North Carolina State Bar in all respects as if the attorney were a regularly admitted and licensed member of the Bar of North Carolina in good standing.
(4) A statement that the state in which the attorney is regularly admitted to practice grants like privileges to members of the Bar of North Carolina in good standing.
(5) A statement to the effect that the attorney has associated and is personally appearing in the proceeding, with an attorney who is a resident of this State, has agreed to be responsible for filing a registration statement with the North Carolina State Bar, and is duly and legally admitted to practice in the General Court of Justice of North Carolina, upon whom service may be had in all matters connected with the legal proceedings, or any disciplinary matter, with the same effect as if personally made on the foreign attorney within this State.
(6) A statement accurately disclosing a record of all that attorney's disciplinary history. Discipline shall include (i) public discipline by any court or lawyer regulatory organization, and (ii) revocation of any pro hac vice admission.
(7) A fee in the amount of two hundred twenty-five dollars ($225.00), of which two hundred dollars ($200.00) shall be remitted to the State Treasurer for support of the General Court of Justice and twenty-five dollars ($25.00) shall be transmitted to the North Carolina State Bar to regulate the practice of out-of-state attorneys as provided in this section.
Compliance with the foregoing requirements does not deprive the court of the discretionary power to allow or reject the application. (1967, c. 1199, s. 1; 1971, c. 550, s. 1; 1975, c. 582, ss. 1, 2; 1977, c. 430; 1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 1022, s. 8; 1991, c. 210, s. 2; 1995, c. 431, s. 5; 2003-116, s. 1; 2004-186, s. 4.2; 2005-396, s. 1; 2007-200, s. 4; 2007-323, s. 30.8(k).)
§ 84-4.2. Summary revocation of permission granted out-of-state attorneys to practice.
Permission granted under G.S. 84-4.1 may be summarily revoked by the General Court of Justice or any agency, including the North Carolina Utilities Commission, on its own motion and in its discretion. (1967, c. 1199, s. 2; 1971, c. 550, s. 2; 1995, c. 431, s. 6.)
§ 84-5. Prohibition as to practice of law by corporation.
(a) It shall be unlawful for any corporation to practice law or appear as an attorney for any person in any court in this State, or before any judicial body or the North Carolina Industrial Commission, Utilities Commission, or the Department of Commerce, Division of Employment Security, or hold itself out to the public or advertise as being entitled to practice law; and no corporation shall organize corporations, or draw agreements, or other legal documents, or draw wills, or practice law, or give legal advice, or hold itself out in any manner as being entitled to do any of the foregoing acts, by or through any person orally or by advertisement, letter or circular. The provisions of this section shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any other provisions of Chapter 84. Provided, that nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a banking corporation authorized and licensed to act in a fiduciary capacity from performing any clerical, accounting, financial or business acts required of it in the performance of its duties as a fiduciary or from performing ministerial and clerical acts in the preparation and filing of such tax returns as are so required, or from discussing the business and financial aspects of fiduciary relationships. Provided, however, this section shall not apply to corporations authorized to practice law under the provisions of Chapter 55B of the General Statutes of North Carolina.
To further clarify the foregoing provisions of this section as they apply to corporations which are authorized and licensed to act in a fiduciary capacity:
(1) A corporation authorized and licensed to act in a fiduciary capacity shall not:
a. Draw wills or trust instruments; provided that this shall not be construed to prohibit an employee of such corporation from conferring and cooperating with an attorney who is not a salaried employee of the corporation, at the request of such attorney, in connection with the attorney's performance of services for a client who desires to appoint the corporation executor or trustee or otherwise to utilize the fiduciary services of the corporation.
b. Give legal advice or legal counsel, orally or written, to any customer or prospective customer or to any person who is considering renunciation of the right to qualify as executor or administrator or who proposes to resign as guardian or trustee, or to any other person, firm or corporation.
c. Advertise to perform any of the acts prohibited herein; solicit to perform any of the acts prohibited herein; or offer to perform any of the acts prohibited herein.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, when any of the following acts are to be performed in connection with the fiduciary activities of such a corporation, said acts shall be performed for the corporation by a duly licensed attorney, not a salaried employee of the corporation, retained to perform legal services required in connection with the particular estate, trust or other fiduciary matter:
a. Offering wills for probate.
b. Preparing and publishing notice of administration to creditors.
c. Handling formal court proceedings.
d. Drafting legal papers or giving legal advice to spouses concerning rights to an elective share under Article 1A of Chapter 30 of the General Statutes.
e. Resolving questions of domicile and residence of a decedent.
f. Handling proceedings involving year's allowances of widows and children.
g. Drafting deeds, notes, deeds of trust, leases, options and other contracts.
h. Drafting instruments releasing deeds of trust.
i. Drafting assignments of rent.
j. Drafting any formal legal document to be used in the discharge of the corporate fiduciary's duty.
k. In matters involving estate and inheritance taxes, gift taxes, and federal and State income taxes:
1. Preparing and filing protests or claims for refund, except requests for a refund based on mathematical or clerical errors in tax returns filed by it as a fiduciary.
2. Conferring with tax authorities regarding protests or claims for refund, except those based on mathematical or clerical errors in tax returns filed by it as a fiduciary.
3. Handling petitions to the tax court.
l. Performing legal services in insolvency proceedings or before a referee in bankruptcy or in court.
m. In connection with the administration of an estate or trust:
1. Making application for letters testamentary or letters of administration.
2. Abstracting or passing upon title to property.
3. Handling litigation relating to claims by or against the estate or trust.
4. Handling foreclosure proceedings of deeds of trust or other security instruments which are in default.
(3) When any of the following acts are to be performed in connection with the fiduciary activities of such a corporation, the corporation shall comply with the following:
a. The initial opening and inventorying of safe deposit boxes in connection with the administration of an estate for which the corporation is executor or administrator shall be handled by, or with the advice of, an attorney, not a salaried employee of the corporation, retained by the corporation to perform legal services required in connection with that particular estate.
b. The furnishing of a beneficiary with applicable portions of a testator's will relating to such beneficiary shall, if accompanied by any legal advice or opinion, be handled by, or with the advice of, an attorney, not a salaried employee of the corporation, retained by the corporation to perform legal services required in connection with that particular estate or matter.
c. In matters involving estate and inheritance taxes and federal and State income taxes, the corporation shall not execute waivers of statutes of limitations without the advice of an attorney, not a salaried employee of the corporation, retained by the corporation to perform legal services in connection with that particular estate or matter.
d. An attorney, not a salaried employee of the corporation, retained by the corporation to perform legal services required in connection with an estate or trust shall be furnished copies of inventories and accounts proposed for filing with any court and proposed federal estate and North Carolina inheritance tax returns and, on request, copies of proposed income and intangibles tax returns, and shall be afforded an opportunity to advise and counsel the corporate fiduciary concerning them prior to filing.
(b) Nothing in this section shall prohibit an attorney retained by a corporation, whether or not the attorney is also a salaried employee of the corporation, from representing the corporation or an affiliate, or from representing an officer, director, or employee of the corporation or an affiliate in any matter arising in connection with the course and scope of the employment of the officer, director, or employee. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the attorney providing such representation shall be governed by and subject to all of the Rules of Professional Conduct of the North Carolina State Bar to the same extent as all other attorneys licensed by this State. (1931, c. 157, s. 2; 1937, c. 155, s. 2; 1955, c. 526, s. 2; 1969, c. 718, s. 20; 1971, c. 747; 1997-203, s. 1; 2000-178, s. 8; 2011-401, s. 3.5.)
§ 84-5.1. Rendering of legal services by certain nonprofit corporations.
(a) Subject to the rules and regulations of the North Carolina State Bar, as approved by the Supreme Court of North Carolina, a nonprofit corporation, tax exempt under 26 U.S.C. § 501(c)(3), organized or authorized under Chapter 55A of the General Statutes of North Carolina and operating as a public interest law firm as defined by the applicable Internal Revenue Service guidelines or for the primary purpose of rendering indigent legal services, may render such services provided by attorneys duly licensed to practice law in North Carolina, for the purposes for which the nonprofit corporation was organized. The nonprofit corporation must have a governing structure that does not permit an individual or group of individuals other than an attorney duly licensed to practice law in North Carolina to control the manner or course of the legal services rendered and must continually satisfy the criteria established by the Internal Revenue Service for 26 U.S.C. § 501(c)(3) status, whether or not any action has been taken to revoke that status.
(b) In no instance may legal services rendered by a nonprofit corporation under subsection (a) of this section be conditioned upon the purchase or payment for any product, good, or service other than the legal service rendered. (1977, c. 841, s. 1; 2009-231, s. 1.)
§ 84-6. Exacting fee for conducting foreclosures prohibited to all except licensed attorneys.
It shall be unlawful to exact, charge, or receive any attorney's fee for the foreclosure of any mortgage under power of sale, unless the foreclosure is conducted by licensed attorney-at-law of North Carolina, and unless the full amount charged as attorney's fee is actually paid to and received and retained by such attorney, without being directly or indirectly shared with or rebated to anyone else, and it shall be unlawful for any such attorney to make any showing that he has received such a fee unless he has received the same, or to share with or rebate to any other person, firm, or corporation such fee or any part thereof received by him; but such attorney may divide such fee with another licensed attorney-at-law maintaining his own place of business and not an officer or employee of the foreclosing party, if such attorney has assisted in performing the services for which the fee is paid, or resides in a place other than that where the foreclosure proceedings are conducted, and has forwarded the case to the attorney conducting such foreclosure. (1931, c. 157, s. 3.)
§ 84-7. District attorneys, upon application, to bring injunction or criminal proceedings.
The district attorney of any of the superior courts shall, upon the application of any member of the Bar, or of any bar association, of the State of North Carolina, bring such action in the name of the State as may be proper to enjoin any such person, corporation, or association of persons who it is alleged are violating the provisions of G.S. 84-4 to 84-8, and it shall be the duty of the district attorneys of this State to indict any person, corporation, or association of persons upon the receipt of information of the violation of the provisions of G.S. 84-4 to 84-8. (1931, c. 157, s. 4; 1973, c. 47, s. 2.)
§ 84-7.1. Legal clinics of law schools and certain law students and lawyers excepted.
The provisions of G.S. 84-4 through G.S. 84-6 shall not apply to any of the following:
(1) Any law school conducting a legal clinic and receiving as its clientage only those persons unable financially to compensate for legal advice or services rendered and any law student permitted by the North Carolina State Bar to act as a legal intern in such a legal clinic.
(2) Any law student permitted by the North Carolina State Bar to act as a legal intern for a federal, State, or local government agency.
(3) Any lawyer licensed by another state and permitted by the North Carolina State Bar to represent indigent clients on a pro bono basis under the supervision of active members employed by nonprofit corporations qualified to render legal services pursuant to G.S. 84-5.1. This provision does not apply to a lawyer whose license has been suspended or revoked in any state. (2011-336, s. 5.)
§ 84-8. Punishment for violations.
(a) Any person, corporation, or association of persons violating any of the provisions of G.S. 84-4 through G.S. 84-6 or G.S. 84-9 shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.
(b) No person shall be entitled to collect any fee for services performed in violation of G.S. 84-4 through G.S. 84-6, G.S. 84-9, or G.S. 84-10.1. (1931, c. 157, s. 5; c. 347; 1993, c. 539, s. 597; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c); 2007-200, s. 3; 2011-336, s. 4.)
§ 84-9. Unlawful for anyone except attorney to appear for creditor in insolvency and certain other proceedings.
It shall be unlawful for any corporation, or any firm or other association of persons other than a law firm, or for any individual other than an attorney duly licensed to practice law, to appear for another in any bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding, or in any action or proceeding for or growing out of the appointment of a receiver, or in any matter involving an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or to present or vote any claim of another, whether under an assignment or transfer of such claim or in any other manner, in any of the actions, proceedings or matters hereinabove set out. (1931, c. 208, s. 2.)
§ 84-10: Repealed by Session Laws 2011-336, s. 6, effective December 1, 2011, and applicable to offenses committed on or after December 1, 2011.
§ 84-10.1. Private cause of action for the unauthorized practice of law.
If any person knowingly violates any of the provisions of G.S. 84-4 through G.S. 84-6 or G.S. 84-9, fraudulently holds himself or herself out as a North Carolina certified paralegal by use of the designations set forth in G.S. 84-37(a), or knowingly aids and abets another person to commit the unauthorized practice of law, in addition to any other liability imposed pursuant to this Chapter or any other applicable law, any person who is damaged by the unlawful acts set out in this section shall be entitled to maintain a private cause of action to recover damages and reasonable attorneys' fees and other injunctive relief as ordered by court. No order or judgment under this section shall have any effect upon the ability of the North Carolina State Bar to take any action authorized by this Chapter. (2011-336, s. 7; 2016-60, s. 3.)
Relation to Client.
§ 84-11. Authority filed or produced if requested.
Every attorney who claims to enter an appearance for any person shall, upon being required so to do, produce and file in the clerk's office of the court in which he claims to enter an appearance, a power or authority to that effect signed by the persons or some one of them for whom he is about to enter an appearance, or by some person duly authorized in that behalf, otherwise he shall not be allowed so to do: Provided, that when any attorney claims to enter an appearance by virtue of a letter to him directed (whether such letter purport a general or particular employment), and it is necessary for him to retain the letter in his own possession, he shall, on the production of said letter setting forth such employment, be allowed to enter his appearance, and the clerk shall make a note to that effect upon the docket. (R.C., c. 31, s. 57; Code, s. 29; Rev., s. 213; C.S., s. 200.)
§ 84-12. Failure to file complaint, attorney liable for costs.
When a plaintiff is compelled to pay the costs of his suit in consequence of a failure on the part of his attorney to file his complaint in proper time, he may sue such attorney for all the costs by him so paid, and the receipt of the clerk may be given in evidence in support of such claim. (1786, c. 253, s. 6; R.C., c. 9, s. 5; Code, s. 22; Rev., s. 214; C.S., s. 201.)
§ 84-13. Fraudulent practice, attorney liable in double damages.
If any attorney commits any fraudulent practice, he shall be liable in an action to the party injured, and on the verdict passing against him, judgment shall be given for the plaintiff to recover double damages. (1743, c. 37; R.C., c. 9, s. 6; Code, s. 23; Rev., s. 215; C. S., s. 202.)
§ 84-14: Recodified as § 7A-97 by Session Laws 1995, c. 431, s. 7.
North Carolina State Bar.
§ 84-15. Creation of North Carolina State Bar as an agency of the State.
There is hereby created as an agency of the State of North Carolina, for the purposes and with the powers hereinafter set forth, the North Carolina State Bar. (1933, c. 210, s. 1.)
§ 84-16. Membership and privileges.
The membership of the North Carolina State Bar shall consist of two classes, active and inactive.
The active members shall be all persons who have obtained a license or certificate, entitling them to practice law in the State of North Carolina, who have paid the membership dues specified, and who have satisfied all other obligations of membership. No person other than a member of the North Carolina State Bar shall practice in any court of the State except foreign attorneys as provided by statute and natural persons representing themselves.
Inactive members shall be:
(1) All persons who have obtained a license to practice law in the State but who have been found by the Council to be not engaged in the practice of law and not holding themselves out as practicing attorneys and not occupying any public or private positions in which they may be called upon to give legal advice or counsel or to examine the law or to pass upon, adjudicate, or offer an opinion concerning the legal effect of any act, document, or law.
(2) Persons allowed by the Council solely to represent indigent clients on a pro bono basis under the supervision of an active member employed by a nonprofit corporation qualified to render legal services pursuant to G.S. 84-5.1.
All active members shall be required to pay annual membership fees, and shall have the right to vote in elections held by the district bar in the judicial district in which the member resides. If a member desires to vote with the bar of some district in which the member practices, other than that in which the member resides, the member may do so by filing with the Secretary of the North Carolina State Bar a statement in writing that the member desires to vote in the other district; provided, however, that in no case shall the member be entitled to vote in more than one district. (1933, c. 210, s. 2; 1939, c. 21, s. 1; 1941, c. 344, ss. 1, 2, 3; 1969, c. 44, s. 60; c. 1190, s. 52; 1973, c. 1152, s. 1; 1981, c. 788, s. 2; 1983, c. 589, s. 1; 1985, c. 621; 1995, c. 431, s. 8; 2007-200, s. 1.)
§ 84-17. Government.
The government of the North Carolina State Bar is vested in a council of the North Carolina State Bar referred to in this Chapter as the "Council." The Council shall be composed of a variable number of councilors equal to the number of judicial districts plus 16, the officers of the North Carolina State Bar, who shall be councilors during their respective terms of office, and each retiring president of the North Carolina State Bar who shall be a councilor for one year from the date of expiration of his term as president. Notwithstanding any other provisions of the law, the North Carolina State Bar may borrow money and may acquire, hold, rent, encumber, alienate, lease, and otherwise deal with real or personal property in the same manner as any private person or corporation, subject only to the approval of the Governor and the Council of State as to the borrowing of money and the acquisition, rental, encumbering, leasing and sale of real property. The Council shall be competent to exercise the entire powers of the North Carolina State Bar in respect of the interpretation and administration of this Article, the borrowing of money, the acquisition, lease, sale, or mortgage of property, real or personal, the seeking of amendments to this Chapter, and all other matters. There shall be one councilor from each judicial district and 16 additional councilors. The additional councilors shall be allocated and reallocated by the North Carolina State Bar every six years based on the number of active members of each judicial district bar according to the records of the North Carolina State Bar and in accordance with a formula to be adopted by the North Carolina State Bar, to insure an allocation based on lawyer population of each judicial district bar as it relates to the total number of active members of the State Bar.
A councilor whose seat has been eliminated due to a reallocation shall continue to serve on the Council until expiration of the remainder of the current term. A councilor whose judicial district is altered by the General Assembly during the councilor's term shall continue to serve on the Council until the expiration of the term and shall represent the district wherein the councilor resides or with which the councilor has elected to be affiliated. If before the alteration of the judicial district of the councilor the judicial district included both the place of residence and the place of practice of the councilor, and if after the alteration of the judicial district the councilor's place of residence and place of practice are located in different districts, the councilor must, not later than 10 days from the effective date of the alteration of the district, notify the Secretary of the North Carolina State Bar of an election to affiliate with and represent either the councilor's district of residence or district of practice.
In addition to the councilors, there shall be three public members not licensed to practice law in this or any other state who shall be appointed by the Governor. The public members may vote and participate in all matters before the Council to the same extent as councilors elected or appointed from the various judicial districts. (1933, c. 210, s. 3; 1937, c. 51, s. 1; 1955, c. 651, s. 1; 1961, c. 641; 1973, c. 1152, s. 2; 1977, c. 841, s. 2; 1979, c. 570, ss. 1, 2; 1981, c. 788, s. 3; 1985, c. 60, s. 1; 1987, c. 316, s. 1; 1995, c. 431, s. 9; 2007-200, s. 2; 2009-82, s. 1.)
§ 84-18. Terms, election and appointment of councilors.
(a) Except as set out in this section, the terms of councilors are fixed at three years commencing on the first day of January in the year following their election. A year shall be the calendar year. No councilor may serve more than three successive three-year terms but a councilor may serve an unlimited number of three successive three-year terms provided a three-year period of nonservice intervenes in each instance. Any councilor serving a partial term of 18 months or more is considered to have served a full term and shall be eligible to be elected to only two successive three-year terms in addition to the partial term. Any councilor serving a partial term of less than 18 months is eligible to be elected to three successive three-year terms in addition to the partial term. This paragraph shall not apply to officers of the State Bar.
The secretary of a judicial district bar shall notify the secretary-treasurer of the State Bar in writing of any additions to or deletions from the delegation of councilors representing the district within 90 days of the effective date of the change. No new councilor shall assume a seat until official notice of the election has been given to the secretary-treasurer of the State Bar.
Any active member of the North Carolina State Bar is eligible to serve as a councilor from the judicial district in which the member is eligible to vote.
(b) The Council may promulgate rules to govern the election and appointment of councilors. The election and appointment of councilors shall be as follows:
Each judicial district bar shall elect one eligible North Carolina State Bar member for each Council vacancy in the district. Any vacancy occurring after the election, whether caused by resignation, death, reconfiguration of the district by the General Assembly, or otherwise shall be filled by the judicial district bar in which the vacancy occurs. The appointment shall be for the unexpired portion of the term and shall be certified to the Council by the judicial district bar. Any appointed councilor shall be subject to the terms set forth in subsection (a) of G.S. 84-18.
(c) Public members shall serve three-year terms. No public member shall serve more than two complete consecutive terms. The Secretary of the North Carolina State Bar shall promptly inform the Governor when any seat occupied by a public member becomes vacant. The successor shall serve the remainder of the term. Any public member serving a partial term of 18 months or more is considered to have served a full term and is eligible to be elected to only one additional three-year term in addition to the partial term. Any public member serving a partial term of less than 18 months is eligible to be elected to two successive three-year terms in addition to the partial term. (1933, c. 210, s. 4; 1953, c. 1310, s. 1; 1979, c. 570, s. 3; 1981, c. 788, s. 4; 1985, c. 60, ss. 2, 3; 1987, c. 316, s. 2; 1995, c. 431, s. 10.)
§ 84-18.1. Membership and fees of district bars.
(a) The district bar shall be a subdivision of the North Carolina State Bar subject to the general supervisory authority of the Council and may adopt rules, regulations and bylaws that are not inconsistent with this Article. A copy of any rules, regulations and bylaws that are adopted, along with any subsequent amendments, shall be transmitted to the Secretary-Treasurer of the North Carolina State Bar.
(b) Any district bar may from time to time by a majority vote of the members present at a duly called meeting prescribe an annual membership fee to be paid by its active members as a service charge to promote and maintain its administration, activities and programs. The fee shall be in addition to, but shall not exceed, the amount of the membership fee prescribed by G.S. 84-34 for active members of the North Carolina State Bar. The district bar may also charge a late fee, which shall not exceed fifteen dollars ($15.00), for the failure to pay judicial district bar dues on time. The district bar shall mail a written notice to every active member of the district bar at least 30 days before any meeting at which an election is held to impose or increase mandatory district bar dues. Every active member of a district bar which has prescribed an annual membership fee shall keep its secretary-treasurer notified of his correct mailing address and shall pay the prescribed fee at the time and place set forth in the demand for payment mailed to him by its secretary-treasurer. The name of each active member of a district bar who is more than 12 full calendar months in arrears in the payment of any fee shall be furnished by the secretary-treasurer of the district bar to the Council. In the exercise of its powers as set forth in G.S. 84-23, the Council shall thereupon take disciplinary or other action with reference to the delinquent as it considers necessary and proper. (1969, c. 241; 1983, c. 390, s. 1; 1995, c. 431, s. 11; 2005-396, s. 2.)
§ 84-19. Judicial districts definition.
For purposes of this Article, the term "judicial district" refers to prosecutorial districts established by the General Assembly and includes the High Point Superior Court District as described under G.S. 7A-41(b)(13). The term "district bar" means the bar of a judicial district as defined by this section. (1933, c. 210, s. 5; 1955, c. 651, s. 2; 1979, c. 570, s. 4; 1987, c. 316, s. 3; 1995, c. 431, s. 12; 2011-28, s. 1.)
§ 84-20. Compensation of councilors.
The members of the Council and members of committees when actually engaged in the performance of their duties, including committees sitting upon disbarment proceedings, shall receive as compensation for the time spent in attending meetings an amount to be determined by the Council, subject to approval of the North Carolina Supreme Court, and shall receive actual expenses of travel and subsistence while engaged in their duties provided that for transportation by use of private automobile the expense of travel shall not exceed the business standard mileage rate set by the Internal Revenue Service per mile of travel. The Council shall determine per diem and mileage to be paid. The allowance fixed by the Council shall be paid by the secretary-treasurer of the North Carolina State Bar upon presentation of appropriate documentation by each member. (1933, c. 210, s. 6; 1935, c. 34; 1953, c. 1310, s. 2; 1971, c. 13, s. 1; 1995, c. 431, s. 13; 2006-66, s. 22.23; 2006-221, s. 24.)
§ 84-21. Organization of Council; publication of rules, regulations and bylaws.
(a) The Council shall adopt the rules pursuant to G.S. 45A-9.
(b) The rules and regulations adopted by the Council under this Article may be amended by the Council from time to time in any manner not inconsistent with this Article. Copies of all rules and regulations and of all amendments adopted by the Council shall be certified to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, entered by the North Carolina Supreme Court upon its minutes, and published in the next ensuing number of the North Carolina Reports and in the North Carolina Administrative Code: Provided, that the court may decline to have so entered upon its minutes any rules, regulations and amendments which in the opinion of the Chief Justice are inconsistent with this Article. (1933, c. 210, s. 7; 1991, c. 418, s. 7; 1995, c. 431, s. 14; 2011-336, s. 8.)
§ 84-22. Officers and committees of the North Carolina State Bar.
The officers of the North Carolina State Bar and the Council shall consist of a president, president-elect, vice-president and an immediate past president, who shall be deemed members of the Council in all respects. The president, president-elect and vice-president need not be members of the Council at the time of their election. There shall be a secretary-treasurer who shall also have the title of executive director, but who shall not be a member of the Council. All officers shall be elected annually by the Council at an election to take place at the annual meeting of the North Carolina State Bar. The regular term of all officers is one year. The Council is the judge of the election and qualifications of its members.
In addition to the committees and commissions as may be specifically established or authorized by law, the North Carolina State Bar may have committees, standing or special, as from time to time the Council deems appropriate for the proper discharge of the duties and functions of the North Carolina State Bar. The Council shall determine the number of members, composition, method of appointment or election, functions, powers and duties, structure, authority to act, and other matters relating to each committee. Any committee may, at the discretion of the appointing or electing authority, be composed of Council members or members of the North Carolina State Bar who are not members of the Council, or of lay persons, or of any combination. (1933, c. 210, s. 8; 1941, c. 344, ss. 4, 5; 1973, c. 1152, s. 3; 1979, c. 570, s. 5; 1995, c. 431, s. 15.)
§ 84-23. Powers of Council.
(a) The Council is vested, as an agency of the State, with the authority to regulate the professional conduct of licensed lawyers and State Bar certified paralegals. Among other powers, the Council shall administer this Article; take actions that are necessary to ensure the competence of lawyers and State Bar certified paralegals; formulate and adopt rules of professional ethics and conduct; investigate and prosecute matters of professional misconduct; grant or deny petitions for reinstatement; resolve questions pertaining to membership status; arbitrate disputes concerning legal fees; certify legal specialists and paralegals and charge fees to applicants and participants necessary to administer these certification programs; determine whether a member is disabled; maintain an annual registry of interstate and international law firms doing business in this State; and formulate and adopt procedures for accomplishing these purposes. The Council may do all things necessary in the furtherance of the purposes of this Article that are not otherwise prohibited by law.
(b) The Council or any committee of the Council, including the Client Security Fund and the Disciplinary Hearing Commission or any committee of the Commission, may subpoena financial records of any licensed lawyers, lawyers whose licenses have been suspended, or disbarred lawyers, relating to any account into which client or fiduciary funds have been deposited.
(c) The Council may publish an official journal concerning matters of interest to the legal profession.
(d) The Council may acquire, hold, rent, encumber, alienate, lease, and otherwise deal with real or personal property in the same manner as any private person or corporation, subject only to the approval of the Governor and the Council of State as to the acquisition, rental, encumbering, leasing and sale of real property. The Council may borrow money upon its bonds, notes, debentures, or other evidences of indebtedness sold through public or private sale pursuant to a loan agreement or a trust agreement or indenture with a trustee, with such borrowing either unsecured or secured by a mortgage on the Council's interest in real or personal property, and engage and contract with attorneys, underwriters, financial advisors, and other parties as necessary for such borrowing, with such borrowing and security subject to the approval of the Governor and the Council of State. The Council may utilize the services of the Purchase and Contract Division of the Department of Administration to procure personal property, in accordance with the provisions of Article 3 of Chapter 143 of the General Statutes. However, the Council shall: (i) submit all proposed contracts for supplies, materials, printing, equipment, and contractual services that exceed one million dollars ($1,000,000) authorized by this subsection to the Attorney General or the Attorney General's designee for review as provided in G.S. 114-8.3; and (ii) include in all contracts to be awarded by the Council under this subsection a standard clause which provides that the State Auditor and internal auditors of the Council may audit the records of the contractor during and after the term of the contract to verify accounts and data affecting fees and performance. The Council shall not award a cost plus percentage of cost agreement or contract for any purpose. (1933, c. 210, s. 9; 1935, c. 74, s. 1; 1937, c. 51, s. 2; 1975, c. 582, s. 3; 1977, c. 841, s. 2; 1995, c. 431, s. 16; 2003-116, s. 2; 2004-174, s. 1; 2005-396, s. 4; 2009-82, s. 2; 2010-194, s. 12; 2011-326, s. 15(l).)
§ 84-23.1. Prepaid legal services.
(a) This section is in addition to and not a limitation of the powers and responsibilities of the council set out in G.S. 84-23. To the extent that this section deals with the same powers and responsibilities it shall be taken to be in amplification of those powers and not in derogation thereof.
(b) Repealed by Session Laws 1991, c. 210, s. 1.
(b1) All organizations offering prepaid legal services plans shall register those plans with the North Carolina State Bar Council on forms provided by the Council. Each plan shall be registered prior to its implementation or operation in this State and shall renew its registration with the State Bar annually.
(b2) Every plan shall pay an administrative fee to the Council for the initial registration and an annual renewal fee in amounts determined by the Council.
(c) Repealed by Session Laws 1991, c. 210, s. 1.
(d) Notwithstanding registration of the plan with the North Carolina State Bar Council pursuant to subsection (b1), any plan for prepaid legal services is subject to regulation under Chapter 58 of the General Statutes if offered by a company engaged in the insurance business or if the plan itself constitutes the offering of insurance.
(e) Repealed by Session Laws 1991, c. 210, s. 1. (1975, c. 707, s. 1; 1991, c. 210, s. 1; 2005-396, ss. 5, 6.)
§ 84-24. Admission to practice.
For the purpose of examining applicants and providing rules and regulations for admission to the Bar including the issuance of license therefor, there is hereby created the Board of Law Examiners, which shall consist of 11 members of the Bar, elected by the Council, who need not be members of the Council. No teacher in any law school, however, shall be eligible. The members of the Board of Law Examiners elected from the Bar shall each hold office for a term of three years.
The Board of Law Examiners shall elect a member of the Board as chair thereof, and the Board may employ an executive secretary and provide such assistance as may be required to enable the Board to perform its duties promptly and properly. The chair and any employees shall serve for a period of time determined by the Board.
The examination shall be held in the manner and at the times as the Board of Law Examiners may determine.
The Board of Law Examiners shall have full power and authority to make or cause to be made such examinations and investigations as may be deemed by it necessary to satisfy it that the applicants for admission to the Bar possess the qualifications of character and general fitness requisite for an attorney and counselor-at-law and to this end the Board of Law Examiners shall have the power of subpoena and to summons and examine witnesses under oath and to compel their attendance and the production of books, papers and other documents and writings deemed by it to be necessary or material to the inquiry and shall also have authority to employ and provide assistance as may be required to enable it to perform its duties promptly and properly. Records, papers, and other documents containing information collected and compiled by the Board or its members or employees as a result of investigations, inquiries, or interviews conducted in connection with examinations or licensing matters, are not public records within the meaning of Chapter 132 of the General Statutes.
All applicants for admission to the Bar shall be fingerprinted to determine whether the applicant has a record of criminal conviction in this State or in any other state or jurisdiction. The information obtained as a result of the fingerprinting of an applicant shall be limited to the official use of the Board of Law Examiners in determining the character and general fitness of the applicant.
The Department of Public Safety may provide a criminal record check to the Board of Law Examiners for a person who has applied for a license through the Board. The Board shall provide to the Department of Public Safety, along with the request, the fingerprints of the applicant, any additional information required by the Department of Public Safety, and a form signed by the applicant consenting to the check of the criminal record and to the use of the fingerprints and other identifying information required by the State or national repositories. The applicant's fingerprints shall be forwarded to the State Bureau of Investigation for a search of the State's criminal history record file, and the State Bureau of Investigation shall forward a set of the fingerprints to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for a national criminal history check. The Board shall keep all information pursuant to this subsection privileged, in accordance with applicable State law and federal guidelines, and the information shall be confidential and shall not be a public record under Chapter 132 of the General Statutes.
The Department of Public Safety may charge each applicant a fee for conducting the checks of criminal history records authorized by this section.
The Board of Law Examiners, subject to the approval of the Council, shall by majority vote, from time to time, make, alter, and amend such rules and regulations for admission to the Bar as in their judgment shall promote the welfare of the State and the profession: Provided, that no change in the educational requirements for admission to the Bar that establishes an additional or greater requirement shall become effective until two years after the date of the adoption of the change.
All rules and regulations, and modifications, alterations and amendments thereof, shall be recorded and promulgated as provided in G.S. 84-21 in relation to the certificate of organization and the rules and regulations of the Council.
Whenever the Council shall order the restoration of license to any person as authorized by G.S. 84-32, it shall be the duty of the Board of Law Examiners to issue a written license to the person, noting thereon that the license is issued in compliance with an order of the Council, whether the license to practice law was issued by the Board of Law Examiners or the Supreme Court in the first instance.
Appeals from the Board shall be had in accordance with rules or procedures as may be approved by the Supreme Court as may be submitted under G.S. 84-21 or as may be promulgated by the Supreme Court. (1933, c. 210, s. 10; c. 331; 1935, cc. 33, 61; 1941, c. 344, s. 6; 1947, c. 77; 1951, c. 991, s. 1; 1953, c. 1012; 1965, cc. 65, 725; 1973, c. 13; 1977, c. 841, s. 2; 1983, c. 177; 1991, c. 210, s. 4; 1995, c. 431, s. 17; 2002-147, s. 5; 2014-100, s. 17.1(o); 2015-264, s. 47.)
§ 84-25. Fees of applicants.
All applicants before the Board of Law Examiners shall pay such fees as prescribed under the rules of said Board as may be promulgated under G.S. 84-21 and 84-24. (1935, c. 33, s. 1; 1955, c. 651, s. 3.)
§ 84-26. Expenses of Board of Law Examiners.
Notwithstanding G.S. 93B-5(b), each member of the Board of Law Examiners shall receive the member's actual expenses of travel and subsistence while engaged in duties assigned to the member; provided, however, that for transportation by the use of private automobile the expense of that transportation shall be the same as paid other boards and commissions by the State. (1935, c. 33, s. 2; 1937, c. 35; 1953, c. 1310, s. 3; 1971, c. 13, s. 2; 1973, c. 1368; 2013-9, s. 1.)
§ 84-27. Repealed by Session Laws 1945, c. 782.
§ 84-28. Discipline and disbarment.
(a) Any attorney admitted to practice law in this State is subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the Council under such rules and procedures as the Council shall adopt as provided in G.S. 84-23.
(b) The following acts or omissions by a member of the North Carolina State Bar or any attorney admitted for limited practice under G.S. 84-4.1, individually or in concert with any other person or persons, shall constitute misconduct and shall be grounds for discipline whether the act or omission occurred in the course of an attorney-client relationship or otherwise:
(1) Conviction of, or a tender and acceptance of a plea of guilty or no contest to, a criminal offense showing professional unfitness;
(2) The violation of the Rules of Professional Conduct adopted and promulgated by the Council in effect at the time of the act;
(3) Knowing misrepresentation of any facts or circumstances surrounding any complaint, allegation or charge of misconduct; failure to answer any formal inquiry or complaint issued by or in the name of the North Carolina State Bar in any disciplinary matter; or contempt of the Council or any committee of the North Carolina State Bar.
(c) Misconduct by any attorney shall be grounds for:
(2) Suspension for a period up to but not exceeding five years, any portion of which may be stayed upon reasonable conditions to which the offending attorney consents;
(3) Censure - A censure is a written form of discipline more serious than a reprimand issued in cases in which an attorney has violated one or more provisions of the Rules of Professional Conduct and has caused significant harm or potential significant harm to a client, the administration of justice, the profession or members of the public, but the protection of the public does not require suspension of the attorney's license;
(4) Reprimand - A reprimand is a written form of discipline more serious than an admonition issued in cases in which an attorney has violated one or more provisions of the Rules of Professional Conduct, but the protection of the public does not require a censure. A reprimand is generally reserved for cases in which the attorney's conduct has caused harm or potential harm to a client, the administration of justice, the profession, or members of the public; or
(5) Admonition - An admonition is a written form of discipline imposed in cases in which an attorney has committed a minor violation of the Rules of Professional Conduct.
Any order disbarring or suspending an attorney may impose reasonable conditions precedent to reinstatement. No attorney who has been disbarred by the Disciplinary Hearing Commission, the Council, or by order of any court of this State may seek reinstatement to the practice of law prior to five years from the effective date of the order of disbarment. Any order of the Disciplinary Hearing Commission or the Grievance Committee imposing an admonition, reprimand, censure, or stayed suspension may also require the attorney to complete a reasonable amount of continuing legal education in addition to the minimum amount required by the North Carolina Supreme Court.
(d) Any attorney admitted to practice law in this State, who is convicted of or has tendered and has had accepted, a plea of guilty or no contest to, a criminal offense showing professional unfitness, may be disciplined based upon the conviction, without awaiting the outcome of any appeals of the conviction. An order of discipline based solely upon a conviction of a criminal offense showing professional unfitness shall be vacated immediately upon receipt by the Secretary of the North Carolina State Bar of a certified copy of a judgment or order reversing the conviction. The fact that the attorney's criminal conviction has been overturned on appeal shall not prevent the North Carolina State Bar from conducting a disciplinary proceeding against the attorney based upon the same underlying facts or events that were the subject of the criminal proceeding.
(d1) An attorney who is disciplined as provided in subsection (d) of this section may petition the court in the trial division in the judicial district where the conviction occurred for an order staying the disciplinary action pending the outcome of any appeals of the conviction. The court may grant or deny the stay in its discretion upon such terms as it deems proper. A stay of the disciplinary action by the court shall not prevent the North Carolina State Bar from going forward with a disciplinary proceeding against the attorney based upon the same underlying facts or events that were the subject of the criminal proceeding.
(e) Any attorney admitted to practice law in this State who is disciplined in another jurisdiction shall be subject to the same discipline in this State: Provided, that the discipline imposed in the other jurisdiction does not exceed that provided for in subsection (c) above and that the attorney was not deprived of due process in the other jurisdiction.
(f) Upon application by the North Carolina State Bar, misconduct by an attorney admitted to practice in this State may be restrained or enjoined where the necessity for prompt action exists regardless of whether a disciplinary proceeding in the matter of the conduct is pending. The application shall be filed in the Superior Court of Wake County and shall be governed by the procedure set forth in G.S. 1A-1, Rule 65.
(g) Any member of the North Carolina State Bar may be transferred to disability inactive status for mental incompetence, physical disability, or substance abuse interfering with the attorney's ability to competently engage in the practice of law under the rules and procedures the Council adopts pursuant to G.S. 84-23.
(h) There shall be an appeal of right by either party from any final order of the Disciplinary Hearing Commission to the North Carolina Court of Appeals. Review by the appellate division shall be upon matters of law or legal inference. The procedures governing any appeal shall be as provided by statute or court rule for appeals in civil cases. A final order which imposes disbarment or suspension for 18 months or more shall not be stayed except upon application, under the rules of the Court of Appeals, for a writ of supersedeas. A final order imposing suspension for less than 18 months or any other discipline except disbarment shall be stayed pending determination of any appeal of right.
(i) The North Carolina State Bar may invoke the process of the General Court of Justice to enforce the powers of the Council or any committee to which the Council delegates its authority.
(j) The North Carolina State Bar may apply to appropriate courts for orders necessary to protect the interests of clients of missing, suspended, disbarred, disabled, or deceased attorneys.
The senior regular resident judge of the superior court of any district wherein a member of the North Carolina State Bar resides or maintains an office shall have the authority and power to enter orders necessary to protect the interests of the clients, including the authority to order the payment of compensation by the member or the estate of a deceased or disabled member to any attorney appointed to administer or conserve the law practice of the member. Compensation awarded to a member serving under this section awarded from the estate of a deceased member shall be considered an administrative expense of the estate for purposes of determining priority of payment. (1933, c. 210, s. 11; 1937, c. 51, s. 3; 1959, c. 1282, ss. 1, 2; 1961, c. 1075; 1969, c. 44, s. 61; 1975, c. 582, s. 5; 1979, c. 570, ss. 6, 7; 1983, c. 390, ss. 2, 3; 1985, c. 167; 1987, c. 316, s. 4; 1989, c. 172, s. 2; 1991, c. 210, s. 5; 1995, c. 431, s. 18; 2005-237, s. 1.)
§ 84-28.1. Disciplinary hearing commission.
(a) There shall be a disciplinary hearing commission of the North Carolina State Bar which shall consist of 20 members. Twelve of these members shall be members of the North Carolina State Bar, and shall be appointed by the Council. The other eight shall be citizens of North Carolina not licensed to practice law in this or any other state, four of whom shall be appointed by the Governor, two by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the President Pro Tempore of the Senate in accordance with G.S. 120-121, and two by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Speaker of the House of Representatives in accordance with G.S. 120-121. The Council shall designate one of its appointees as chair and another as vice-chair. The chair shall have actively practiced law in the courts of the State for at least 10 years. Except as set out herein, the terms of members of the commission are set at three years commencing on the first day of July of the year of their appointment. The Council, the Governor, and the General Assembly respectively, shall appoint members to fill unexpired terms when vacancies are created by resignation, disqualification, disability or death, except that vacancies in appointments made by the General Assembly may also be filled as provided by G.S. 120-122. No member may serve more than a total of seven years or a one-year term and two consecutive three-year terms: Provided, that any member or former member who is designated chair may serve one additional three-year term in that capacity. No member of the Council may be appointed to the commission.
(b) The disciplinary hearing commission of the North Carolina State Bar, or any committee of the disciplinary hearing commission, may hold hearings in discipline, incapacity and disability matters, make findings of fact and conclusions of law after these hearings, enter orders necessary to carry out the duties delegated to it by the Council, and tax the costs to an attorney who is disciplined or is found to be incapacitated or disabled.
(b1) The disciplinary hearing commission of the North Carolina State Bar, or any committee thereof, acting through its chairman, shall have the power to hold persons, firms or corporations in contempt as provided in Chapter 5A.
(c) Members of the disciplinary hearing commission shall receive the same per diem and travel expenses as are authorized for members of State commissions under G.S. 138-5. (1975, c. 582, s. 6; 1979, c. 570, s. 8; 1983, c. 390, s. 4; 1995, c. 431, s. 19; c. 490, s. 51; 2003-116, s. 3; 2005-396, s. 3.)
§ 84-28.2. Persons immune from suit.
Persons shall be immune from suit for all statements made without malice, and intended for transmittal to the North Carolina State Bar or any board, committee, officer, agent or employee thereof, or given in any investigation or proceedings, pertaining to alleged misconduct or disability or to reinstatement of an attorney. The protection of this immunity does not exist, however, as to statements made to others not intended for this use. (1975, c. 582, s. 4; 1995, c. 431, s. 20.)
§ 84-29. Evidence and witnesses.
In any investigation of charges of professional misconduct or disability or in petitions for reinstatement, the Council and any committee thereof, and the disciplinary hearing commission, and any committee thereof, may administer oaths and affirmations and shall have the power to subpoena and examine witnesses under oath, and to compel their attendance, and the production of books, papers and other documents or writings deemed by it necessary or material to the inquiry. Each subpoena shall be issued under the hand of the secretary-treasurer or the president of the Council or the chair of the committee appointed to hear the charges, and shall have the force and effect of a summons or subpoena issued by a court of record, and any witness or other person who shall refuse or neglect to appear in obedience thereto, or to testify or produce the books, papers, or other documents or writings required, shall be liable to punishment for contempt either by the Council or its committee or a hearing committee of the disciplinary hearing commission through its chair pursuant to the procedures set out in Chapter 5A of the General Statutes, but with the right to appeal therefrom. Depositions may be taken in any investigations of professional misconduct as in civil proceedings, but the Council or the committee hearing the case may, in its discretion, whenever it believes that the ends of substantial justice so require, direct that any witness within the State be brought before it. Witnesses giving testimony under a subpoena before the Council or any committee thereof, or the disciplinary hearing commission or any committee thereof, or by deposition, shall be entitled to the same fees as in civil actions.
In cases heard before the Council or any committee thereof or the disciplinary hearing commission or any committee thereof, if the party shall be convicted of the charges, the party shall be taxed with the cost of the hearings: Provided, however, that the bill of costs shall not include any compensation to the members of the Council or committee before whom the hearings are conducted. (1933, c. 210, s. 12; 1959, c. 1282, s. 2; 1975, c. 582, s. 7; 1983, c. 390, s. 6; 1995, c. 431, s. 21.)
§ 84-30. Rights of accused person.
Any person who shall stand charged with an offense cognizable by the council or any committee thereof or the disciplinary hearing commission or any committee thereof shall have the right to invoke and have exercised in his favor the powers of the council or any committee, in respect of compulsory process for witnesses and for the production of books, papers, and other writings and documents, and shall also have the right to be represented by counsel. (1933, c. 210, s. 13; 1959, c. 1282, s. 2; 1975, c. 582, s. 8.)
§ 84-31. Counsel; investigators; powers; compensation.
The Council may appoint a member of the North Carolina State Bar to represent the North Carolina State Bar in any proceedings in which it has an interest including reinstatement and the prosecution of charges of misconduct or disability in the hearings that are held, including appeals, and may authorize counsel to employ assistant counsel, investigators, and administrative assistants in such numbers as it deems necessary. Counsel and investigators engaged in discipline, reinstatement, and disability matters shall have the authority throughout the State to serve subpoenas or other process issued by the Council or any committee thereof or the disciplinary hearing commission or any committee thereof, in the same manner and with the same effect as an officer authorized to serve process of the General Court of Justice. The Council may allow counsel, assistant counsel, investigators and administrative assistants such compensation as it deems proper. (1933, c. 210, s. 14; 1969, c. 44, s. 62; 1975, c. 582, s. 9; 1995, c. 431, s. 22.)
§ 84-32. Records and judgments and their effect; restoration of licenses.
(a) In cases heard by the disciplinary hearing commission or any committee thereof, the proceedings shall be recorded by a certified court reporter and an official copy of all exhibits introduced into evidence shall be made and preserved in the office of the secretary-treasurer. Final judgments of suspension or disbarment shall be entered upon the judgment docket of the superior court in the district wherein the respondent resides or practices law, and also upon the minutes of the Supreme Court of North Carolina; and the judgment shall be effective throughout the State.
(b) Whenever any attorney desires to voluntarily surrender his license, the attorney must tender the license and a written resignation to the Council. The Council, in its discretion, may accept or reject the tender. If the tender is accepted, the Council shall enter an order of disbarment. A copy of any order of disbarment shall be filed with the clerk of the superior court of the county where the respondent resides, maintains an office, or practices law and also upon the minutes of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. The judgment shall be effective throughout the State.
(c) Whenever any attorney has been deprived of the attorney's license by suspension or disbarment, the Council or the disciplinary hearing commission or the secretary-treasurer may, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the Council, restore the license upon due notice being given and satisfactory evidence produced of proper reformation of the suspended or disbarred attorney and of satisfaction of any conditions precedent to restoration.
(d) The Council has jurisdiction to determine any petition seeking the reinstatement of the license of any attorney disbarred or suspended by any court in its inherent power when requested by the court. The proceeding shall be governed by the rules and regulations adopted by the Council. The disbarred or suspended attorney shall satisfy all conditions precedent to reinstatement generally imposed upon attorneys disbarred or suspended by the disciplinary hearing commission or the Council, as well as any conditions imposed by the court. Under no circumstances shall an attorney disbarred by a court or by the North Carolina State Bar be reinstated prior to five years from the effective date of the order of disbarment. (1933, c. 210, s. 15; 1935, c. 74, s. 2; 1953, c. 1310, s. 4; 1959, c. 1282, s. 2; 1975, c. 582, s. 10; 1983, c. 390, s. 5; 1995, c. 431, s. 23.)
§ 84-32.1. Confidentiality of records.
(a) All documents, papers, letters, recordings, electronic records, or other documentary materials, regardless of physical form or characteristic, in the possession of the State Bar or its staff, employees, legal counsel, councilors, and Grievance Committee advisory members concerning any investigation, inquiry, complaint, disability, or disciplinary matter in connection with the State Bar Grievance Committee, the State Bar's Trust Accounting Supervisory Program, or any audit of an attorney trust account shall not be considered public records within the meaning of Chapter 132 of the General Statutes.
(b) All documents, papers, letters, recordings, electronic records, or other documentary materials containing or reflecting the deliberations of the Disciplinary Hearing Commission in disciplinary or disability matters shall not be considered public records within the meaning of Chapter 132 of the General Statutes.
(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any record, paper, or other document containing information collected and compiled by or on behalf of the State Bar that is admitted as evidence in any hearing before the Disciplinary Hearing Commission, or any court or tribunal, shall be a public record within the meaning of Chapter 132 of the General Statutes unless it is admitted into evidence under seal by order of the Disciplinary Hearing Commission, or the court or tribunal in which the proceeding is held.
(d) All documents, papers, letters, recordings, electronic records, or other documentary materials in the possession of the State Bar or its staff, employees, legal counsel, and Lawyer Assistance Program volunteers, relating in any way to a member's participation or prospective participation in the Lawyer Assistance Program, including, but not limited to, any medical, counseling, substance abuse, or mental health records, shall not be considered public records within the meaning of Chapter 132 of the General Statutes. Neither the State Bar nor any person acting under the authority of the State Bar or of the Lawyer Assistance Program shall be required to produce or testify regarding the contents or existence of such documents. (2011-267, s. 5.)
§ 84-33. Annual and special meetings.
The Council shall hold an annual meeting and other meetings necessary to conduct the business of the North Carolina State Bar. (1933, c. 210, s. 16; 1969, c. 104; 1995, c. 431, s. 24.)
§ 84-34. Membership fees and list of members.
Every active member of the North Carolina State Bar shall, prior to the first day of July of each year, pay to the secretary-treasurer an annual membership fee in an amount determined by the Council but not to exceed three hundred dollars ($300.00), and every member shall notify the secretary-treasurer of the member's correct mailing address. Any member who fails to pay the required dues by the last day of June of each year shall be subject to a late fee in an amount determined by the Council but not to exceed thirty dollars ($30.00). All dues for prior years shall be as were set forth in the General Statutes then in effect. The membership fee shall be regarded as a service charge for the maintenance of the several services authorized by this Article, and shall be in addition to all fees required in connection with admissions to practice, and in addition to all license taxes required by law. The fee shall not be prorated: Provided, that no fee shall be required of an attorney licensed after this Article shall have gone into effect until the first day of January of the calendar year following that in which the attorney was licensed; but this proviso shall not apply to attorneys from other states admitted on certificate. The fees shall be disbursed by the secretary-treasurer on the order of the Council. The secretary-treasurer shall annually, at a time and in a law magazine or daily newspaper to be prescribed by the Council, publish an account of the financial transactions of the Council in a form to be prescribed by it. The secretary-treasurer shall compile and keep currently correct from the names and mailing addresses forwarded to the secretary-treasurer and from any other available sources of information a list of members of the North Carolina State Bar and furnish to the clerk of the superior court in each county, not later than the first day of October in each year, a list showing the name and address of each attorney for that county who has not complied with the provisions of this Article. The name of each of the active members who are in arrears in the payment of membership fees shall be furnished to the presiding judge at the next term of the superior court after the first day of October of each year, by the clerk of the superior court of each county wherein the member or members reside, and the court shall thereupon take action that is necessary and proper. The names and addresses of attorneys so certified shall be kept available to the public. The Secretary of Revenue is hereby directed to supply the secretary-treasurer, from records of license tax payments, with any information for which the secretary-treasurer may call in order to enable the secretary-treasurer to comply with this requirement.
The list submitted to several clerks of the superior court shall also be submitted to the Council at its October meeting of each year and it shall take the action thereon that is necessary and proper. (1933, c. 210, s. 17; 1939, c. 21, ss. 2, 3; 1953, c. 1310, s. 5; 1955, c. 651, s. 4; 1961, c. 760; 1971, c. 18; 1973, c. 476, s. 193; c. 1152, s. 4; 1977, c. 841, s. 2; 1981, c. 788, s. 5; 1989, c. 172, s. 1; 1995, c. 431, s. 25; 2005-237, s. 2; 2005-276, s. 23A.1(a); 2013-360, s. 21.1(b); 2013-381, s. 38.1(d).)
§ 84-34.1. Deposits of the North Carolina State Bar.
Deposits of the North Carolina State Bar, its boards, agencies, and committees shall be secured as provided in G.S. 159-31(b). (1991, c. 210, s. 3.)
§ 84-34.2. Specific statutory authority for certain fees.
In addition to fees the Council is elsewhere authorized to charge and collect, the Council may charge and collect the following fees in amounts determined by the Council:
(1) A reinstatement fee for any attorney seeking reinstatement from inactive status, administrative suspension, or suspension for failure to comply with the annual continuing legal education requirements.
(2) A registration fee and annual renewal fee for an interstate or international law firm.
(3) An attendance fee for continuing legal education programs that may include a fee to support the Chief Justice's Commission on Professionalism.
(4) A late fee for failing to file timely the continuing legal education annual report form, for failure to pay attendance fees, or failure to complete the annual continuing legal education requirements.
(5) An administrative fee for any attorney against whom discipline has been imposed. (2005-396, s. 7.)
§ 84-35. Saving as to North Carolina Bar Association.
Nothing in this Article contained shall be construed as affecting in any way the North Carolina Bar Association, or any local bar association. (1933, c. 210, s. 18.)
§ 84-36. Inherent powers of courts unaffected.
Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as disabling or abridging the inherent powers of the court to deal with its attorneys. (1937, c. 51, s. 4.)
§ 84-36.1. Clerks of court to certify orders.
The clerk of any court of this State in which a member of the North Carolina State Bar is convicted of any criminal offense, disciplined, found to be in contempt of the court or adjudged incompetent shall transmit a certified copy of the order or judgment to the secretary-treasurer of the North Carolina State Bar within 10 days of the entry of such judgment or order. (1975, c. 582, s. 11.)
§ 84-37. State Bar may investigate and enjoin unauthorized activities.
(a) The Council or any committee appointed by it for that purpose may inquire into and investigate any charges or complaints of (i) unauthorized or unlawful practice of law or (ii) the use of the designations, "North Carolina Certified Paralegal," "North Carolina State Bar Certified Paralegal," or "Paralegal Certified by the North Carolina State Bar Board of Paralegal Certification," by individuals who have not been certified in accordance with the rules adopted by the North Carolina State Bar. The Council may bring or cause to be brought and maintained in the name of the North Carolina State Bar an action or actions, upon information or upon the complaint of any person or entity against any person or entity that engages in rendering any legal service, holds himself or herself out as a North Carolina certified paralegal by use of the designations set forth in this subsection, or makes it a practice or business to render legal services that are unauthorized or prohibited by law. No bond for cost shall be required in the proceeding.
(b) In an action brought under this section, the final judgment if in favor of the plaintiff shall perpetually restrain the defendant or defendants from the commission or continuance of the unauthorized or unlawful act or acts. A temporary injunction to restrain the commission or continuance of the act or acts may be granted upon proof or by affidavit, that the defendant or defendants have violated any of the laws applicable to unauthorized or unlawful practice of law or the unauthorized use of the designations set forth in subsection (a) of this section or any other designation implying certification by the State Bar. The provisions of law relating generally to injunctions as provisional remedies in actions shall apply to a temporary injunction and the proceedings for temporary injunctions.
(c) The venue for actions brought under this section shall be the superior court of any county in which the relevant acts are alleged to have been committed or in which there appear reasonable grounds that they will be committed in the county where the defendants in the action reside, or in Wake County.
(d) The plaintiff in the action shall be entitled to examine the adverse party and witnesses before filing complaint and before trial in the same manner as provided by law for examining parties.
(e) This section shall not repeal or limit any remedy now provided in cases of unauthorized or unlawful practice of law. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as disabling or abridging the inherent powers of the court in these matters.
(f) The Council or its duly appointed committee may issue advisory opinions in response to inquiries from members or the public regarding whether contemplated conduct would constitute the unauthorized practice of law. (1939, c. 281; 1979, c. 570, s. 9; 1995, c. 431, s. 26; 2004-174, s. 2.)
§ 84-38. Solicitation of retainer or contract for legal services prohibited; division of fees.
It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, corporation, or association or his or their agent, agents, or employees, acting on his or their behalf, to solicit or procure through solicitation either directly or indirectly, any legal business, whether to be performed in this State or elsewhere, or to solicit or procure through solicitation either directly or indirectly, a retainer or contract, written or oral, or any agreement authorizing an attorney or any other person, firm, corporation, or association to perform or render any legal services, whether to be performed in this State or elsewhere.
It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, corporation, or association to divide with or receive from any attorney-at-law, or group of attorneys-at-law, whether practicing in this State or elsewhere, either before or after action is brought, any portion of any fee or compensation charged or received by such attorney-at-law, or any valuable consideration or reward, as an inducement for placing or in consideration of being placed in the hands of such attorney or attorneys-at-law, or in the hands of another person, firm, corporation or association, a claim or demand of any kind, for the purpose of collecting such claim or instituting an action thereon or of representing claimant in the pursuit of any civil remedy for the recovery thereof, or for the settlement or compromise thereof, whether such compromise, settlement, recovery, suit, claim, collection or demand shall be in this State or elsewhere. This paragraph shall not apply to agreements between attorneys to divide compensation received in cases or matters legitimately, lawfully and properly received by them.
Any person, firm, corporation or association of persons violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.
The council of the North Carolina State Bar is hereby authorized and empowered to investigate and bring action against persons charged with violations of this section and the provisions as set forth in G.S. 84-37 shall apply. Nothing contained herein shall be construed to supersede the authority of district attorneys to seek injunctive relief or institute criminal proceedings in the same manner as provided for in G.S. 84-7. Nothing herein shall be construed as abridging the inherent powers of the courts to deal with such matters. (1947, c. 573; 1973, c. 47, s. 2; 1993, c. 539, s. 599; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)